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Articles by Zarina Shukur
Total Records ( 19 ) for Zarina Shukur
  Mohamed A. Sullabi and Zarina Shukur
  In the area of software engineering there have been very few efforts to automate the translation from specifications written in natural language to the formal specification languages. Writing of the specifications in natural language is always depending on context and it is commonly vagueness; this represents the major reasons of the challenge. This paper discusses the design of a tool for translating a software specification written in natural language into a formal specification. We apply controlled natural language that limits the syntax and semantics when the natural language statements been written by proposing structured natural language (SNL) to avoid the ambiguity problem. The tool uses basic information about the operation schemas and statements describing the specification of the system written by a group of user collaboratively as input. The output of the tool is a translation and interpreting of the specification statements into equivalent statements in LATEX form, which are compiled to produce an equivalent statements in Z.
  Nader Abdel Karim and Zarina Shukur
  User authentication is a very important online environment issue. Further, investigation is needed to focus on improving user authentication methods for the sake of improving e-Learning security mechanisms; especially in the field of online exams. This study is the result of a systematic literature review which will answer the following three main questions of online exam user authentication methods, systems and threats. The results cover four main directions. First, it shows complete authentication methods that have been used in online exam systems; whether they are classified as knowledge, possession or biometric based. Second, it summarizes the online exam systems and authentication techniques used whether they are classified as user identification, authentication or continuous authentication. Third, it explores the threats that may occur during exam sessions and specifically classifies impersonation threats. Finally, it investigates existing commercial user authentication products that are used to observe online exams.
  Nader Abdel Karim , Zarina Shukur and Mohammad Ghazal
  User interface design plays a highly significant role in computer applications whether the application is in the online or offline environment. Accordingly, online examination is an equally important system within e-Learning. Consequently, online examination design features need to be a central concern because they are a significant factor in enhancing efficiency as well as convenience of examinees when taking online tests. Accordingly, this paper focused largely on a comprehensive literature review, the results of which answered the two main questions raised with regards to the design features of online examinations. The results of this study show that online tests have nine main design features, namely font (i.e., type, size, colour and style), background colour, sound alert, questions group, counters and number of questions per page. Each of these features has potential values which can be explored for optimal interface design that addresses both the efficiency and convenience of online examination takers.
  Nadeem Alherbawi , Zarina Shukur and Rossilawati Sulaiman
  Data carving is a very important topic in digital investigation and computer forensic. And for that reason researches are needed to focus on improving data carving techniques to enable digital investigators to retrieve important data and evidences from damaged or corrupted data resources. This study is the result of a systematic literature review which answer three main questions in data carving filed. The Results fall into four main directions. First it shows the need of realistic data sets for tools testing. Secondly, it points to the need of object validation under fragmented data storage. Thirdly, investigating content based validation and its benefits in digital investigation field. Finally, it points to a new direction in data carving such as in-place data carving, bulk extractor and using semantic validation in data carving. Finally, a set of potential areas of interest are pointed out that needs further research and investigation.
  Maryati Mohd. Yusof , Zarina Shukur and Azlan Long Abdullah
  The development of information systems projects can be facilitated by an Information Systems Development (ISD) methodology that addresses different system development stages. This study introduces a hybrid approach to selecting a system development methodology known as CUQuP (Complexity, Uncertainty, Quality and Phase) that is based on four main factors: complexity level, uncertainty level, quality criteria and methodology phase. This approach was used to select methodologies for a Malaysian army information management system. The case study was carried out through observations, interview and document analysis. The main findings show that the factors considered in the proposed approach are applicable and comprehensive in the selection of an ISD methodology.
  Ade Adi Wibowo , Zarina Shukur and Rozmi Ismail
  Previous studies in psychology and linguistics revealed that people who committed fraud in online chats would show certain cues in their text/words. For example, deceptive senders displayed higher non-immediacy and expressiveness; used more words but in less complexity and less use of self-reference and diversity in their messages compared to truthful senders. Nevertheless, previous researchers did not explain how much was deemed to be less or more, compared to truthful senders. Such previous studies only determined whether a message was deceiving or not. Therefore, in order to detect deceptive senders, a deception detection model has been developed. It was integrated into a newly developed chatting software to analyse the degree of trust in chatting partners. An experiment was conducted to test the level of user trust in the developed software. The results of the experiment indicated that the software analysis produced an 11.36% possibility that a participant has been deceived. Although there was only a 11.36% chance that a chatting partner had been deceived, this proved that fraud had been committed by the chat partner. The experiments further found that the participants believed in the given results of the analysis and this affected their decision.
  Zarina Shukur , Nursyahidah Alias , Mohd Hazali Mohamed Halip and Bahari Idrus
  Selective ACKnowledgment (SACK) is a complex communication protocol as it is used in various types of distributed computer systems and networks. This acknowledgment mechanism is used with sliding window protocol that allows the receiver to acknowledge packets received out of order, but within the correct sliding window. In this study the SACK protocol has been specified by using Z formal specification language. A formal Z specification provides validation function to ensure that the specification is complete and consistent. The completeness and consistency of Z specification can be checked by proving initial state theorem, pre-condition and properties of a system specification. This study demonstrates the validation process of Z specification of SACK by using theorem proving technique. A theorem prover tool called Z/EVES is used to support the process. It helps to reduce time, energy and mistake than in relatively manual theorem proving which can be tedious and error-prone task.
  Aws A. Magableh , Zarina Shukur and Norazean Mohd Ali
  Aspect-Orientation and Object-Orientation complement each other in a number of aspects. Hence, it is imperative to investigate level of adopting Unified Modelling Language (UML) by the Aspect-Orientation. This study employed a systematic literature review to examine the approaches of Aspect-Oriented UML (AOUML). The rapid growth of complexities of systems, of late have eventually paved way for the emergence of new concerns. In fact these new concerns have cut-cross other concerns and core classes in the system by their nature. Therefore, it is crucial to focus on the concept of crosscutting concerns (Aspect), throughout the whole development life cycle, as they are accountable for generating, disseminating and interweaving depictions. The scope of this study is to depict and examine the current state of art of Aspect-Orientation modelling using UML. The UML diagrams have been implemented on the top of Object-Orientation concepts, it has not been meant to be used to model Aspect-Orientation. Thus, the motivation of this study is to propose a complete tailored formwork that represents Aspect’s constructs using all UML diagrams based on AspectJ constructs. The objective of this present study is find out the shortenings, lack of support, advantage and disadvantage of the existing well-known approaches of Aspect Modelling based on a carefully selected, evaluation and compression criteria. The examination and analysis have revealed that there are some deficiencies of Aspect representation in the early stage of software development, while using the existing UML. We have concluded that extensive research has to be carried out, for us to get a complete comprehensive framework modelling approach that covers all UML diagrams, rather than just a few, moreover we suggest that the assumption of modelling extensions have to depend on a reliable base.
  Aws A. Magableh , Zarina Shukur and Noorazean Mohd. Ali
  The aspect-orientation is a complement for object-orientation. Thus, it would be logical to investigate the adaptability of UML to aspect-orientation. This research focuses on investigating the Aspect-Oriented UML (AOUML) approaches for understanding the benefits of a comprehensive framework for AOUML. Based on this study’s review, it is evident that, of late, the complexity and size of systems have grown up, which accumulatively have led to the manifestation of new concerns. Moreover, these new concerns have cut-cross other concerns and core classes in the system by its nature. Due to this fact, the concept of Advance Separation of Concerns (ASoC) has been put on the table of discussions and the need for an approach to model and represent these crosscutting concerns (Aspect), which is responsible for producing, spreading and tangling representation throughout the development life cycle, is vital. A proper databases have been searched using the suitable keywords, which match this research questions as recommended by systematic review process; this research has collected 468 studies and screened them to minimize the number of studies to 73, which are more appropriate and directly related for this present study. The general scope of this research is to model aspect (crosscutting concerns) using standard UML diagrams 2.4.1 (latest edition). UML behavioural and structural diagrams have been implemented on the top of object-orientation concepts, it has not been meant to be used to model aspect-orientation. Thus, this research has proposed a complete tailored framework that represents aspect’s constructs using all UML diagrams. The objective of this position study is to investigate the aspectual UML modelling tool which is currently being designed and implemented.
  Aws Magableh , Zarina Shukur and Noorazean Mohd Ali
  This study presented a systematic review on Aspect-Oriented Modeling by using UML, which is the popular and well-established modeling language in the industry. Further, the Aspect-Orientation is a complement for Object-Orientation. Thus, it would be natural to investigate the adaptability of UML to Aspect-Orientation. Our research questions focused on investigating the Aspect-Oriented UML (AOUML) approaches based on the literature and for having the benefits of a complete framework for AOUML. The objective of this study was to systematically identify and analyze the Aspect-Oriented Modeling approaches using UML. Therefore, a systematic literature review has been carried out on the existing studies published in the conferences, proceedings and journals. Based on the review, it is evident that the complexity and size systems have grown up, which accumulatively led to the manifestation of new concerns. Moreover, these new concerns that have arrived onboard have cut-cross other concerns and core classes in the system by its nature. Due to this fact, the concept of Advance Separation of Concerns (ASoC) has been put on the table of discussions and the need for an approach to model and represent these crosscutting concerns (Aspect), which is responsible for producing, spreading and tangling representation, throughout the development of life cycle, which is vital and this is considered to be our motivation of systematic review of Aspectual UML modeling. As a result, we have searched the proper databases using the suitable keywords, which match our research questions; we have also collected 468 studies and screened them to minimize the number of studies to 73, which are more appropriate for the present study.
  Mohamed A. Sullabi and Zarina Shukur
  In this study, we concern with how a group of rectifiers can be worked on preparing and producing correct formal software specification and how can they communicate with each other. To address these subjects, we come into view of two different issues, collaborative issues and formal specification issues. Each of these issues is taken into consideration when we propose the solution of the subject that is a web-based model of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) for Z specification document. This model provides software developers with web environment that supports them to collaborate and to help them to produce correct software formal specifications. A web-based prototype application system based on this model has been developed.
  Zarina Shukur and Nurul Fatihah Mohamed
  This study describes the design of an automatic assessment system for assessing an automata-based assignment. Automata concept is taught in several undergraduate computing courses such as Theory of Computation, Automata and Formal Languages and Compilers. We take two elements into consideration when assessing the student’s answers; static element and dynamic element. The static element involves the number of states (initial and final as well) and the number of transitions. Whilst the dynamic aspect involves executing the automata against several test data. In this work, we rely heavily on the JFLAP for drawing and executing the automata.
  Salmi Baharom and Zarina Shukur
  Software testing plays an important role to assure the quality of software and can be highly effective if performed rigorously. Studies found that testing can benefit from formal specification as it provides precise description of expected software behavior and most importantly, it is in a form that it can be manipulated easily for automation purpose. Grey-box testing approach usually based on knowledge obtains from specification and source code while seldom the design specification is concerned. In this study, an approach was described with an example of circular queue for testing a module with internal memory from its formal specification based on grey-box approach. However, in this research, we proposed a grey-box testing approach that uses the knowledge of design specification instead of source code. We utilized formal specifications that were documented using Parnas’s Module Documentation (MD) method to generate test oracle and to execute the test. The MD provides the information of external and internal view of a module that is useful in our testing approach.
  Mabroka Ali Mayouf and Zarina Shukur
  Problem Statement: A few visualization tools have been created for protocol design and analysis. Although these tools provide an environment for designing security protocols, each one has its own protocol definition language (its also called informal specification language). The problem is that the user should understand the language which related to the used tool in order to define an exist protocol or design a new one. For specification, a language needs to be intuitive as well as easily usable and understandable by the security protocol engineer. It must be able to precisely and unambiguously specify the behavior of security protocol. Approach: In this study, we proposed an approach for protocol specification based on the Natural language definitions of protocol semantics. By using programmatic semantics together with animations, representational flexibility of different protocol demonstration was retained for as long as it is needed. Result: This study provides an environment that can be used by protocols designers to develop and investigate different scenarios of security protocols especially authentication protocols. Natural Language Protocol Specifications (NLPS) approach was used to define the protocol. The environment accepts the natural language text of protocol specifications and converts it to animations of protocol behavior. Conclusions/Recommendations: NLPS environment can really help protocol designer to consider and investigate the behavior of security protocols. It can also be used for teaching-learning security protocol concepts. In further, we will consider the possibility of analyzing security protocols using our NLPS environment and animation techniques in order to improve the correctness; that is determining whether or not the intended security properties of a protocol do hold.
  Ahmed Patel , Liu Na , Rodziah Latih , Christopher Wills , Zarina Shukur and Rabia Mulla
  The purpose of this study is to present, introduce and explain the principles, concepts and techniques of mashups through an analysis of mashup tools from End-user Development (EuD) software engineering perspectives, since it is a new programming paradigm. Problem statement: Although mashup tools supporting the creation of mashups rely heavily on data integration, they still require users to have reasonable programming skills, rather than simply enabling the integration of content in a template approach. Mashup tools also have their lifespan in a fast moving technology-driven world which requires meta-application handling. Some developers have discontinued their mashup tools but others are still available in the mashup space. It has been noted that there is a steady increase of new mashups on a daily basis with a concomitant increase of new Application Programming Interface (APIs) to support meta-mashup application EuD. Approach: Both qualitative and quantitative research methods have been utilized. After introducing the basic principles, concepts and techniques of mashups, we develop and present a categorization of mashups and mashup tools and summarize the ten most popular currently used mashup tools against seven indictors from end-user software engineering perspectives ranging from programming skill requirement, prompt suggestion of features use, operability, ‘share-ability’ and reuse, service, type and target user, in order to evaluate how these mashup tools support end-user development. To perform the evaluation and produce the final results, the selected indicators’ features have been horizontally compared and comprehensively analyzed. Results: The philosophy of mashup is aimed at providing simple rapid program development by end-users with minimum programming skills. However, we observe that mashup tools typically follow four data processing styles: Webpage customization, wire paradigm, spreadsheet and programming by demonstration. These mashup tools are supposed to seamlessly and effortlessly assist end-users programming but this is not the case. Conclusion: From our research we concluded that some mashup tools are not really simple enough to handle and still require end-users to have a computer programming background to learn and understand its platform infrastructures and mechanisms. These might all change in the near future. There are some companies that are now involved with mashup development which provide huge opportunities to both individual and organizational customers. Mashup have now become a commercial opportunity rather than a simple way of integrating data from Web 2.0 platforms.
  Maryati Mohd. Yusof , Mansor Omar and Zarina Shukur
  Problem statement: The emerging technology in broadband telecommunication and mobile devices has increased the use of mobile applications. However, the use of mobile application is affected with low bandwidth or disrupted broadband telecommunication due to building blockage or out of coverage area. Approach: We proposed a Disruption-Tolerant Mobile Application Model (DTMA) that enables remote data access and overcomes constraint due to dysfunctional telecommunication. The interview process of Educational Service Officer at the Malaysian Educational Service Commissioner (MESC) is selected as the case study. Design of the mobile application is based on the Smart Client and wireless Internet application concepts. The main components of the model are mobile devices with its own processing power, data storage, business logic and Web service. These features enable the application to become disruption-tolerant, which can be run even when communication line is not available or disrupted. In order to prove that the proposed model is effective, a prototype based on the DTMA model is developed and evaluated. Results: The prototype is known as Mobile Interview Information System (MIIS) and it was developed using Visual Basic and .Net’s programming language in .NET Framework. Visual Studio is used as the platform. Users have performed MIIS testing and DTMA usability assessment in a real environment. The test showed that MIIS based on the DTMA model is disruption-tolerant. MIIS enables information to be accessed and updated even in a disrupted network. MIIS also enables information to be accessed and transmitted from or to the MESC’s headquarter via mobile devices. Further, MIIS enables the interview process to be implemented in a more efficient manner without any disruption. Conclusion: Mobile application developed based on the proposed DTMA model was proved to be disruption tolerant. Such application can save time, operational cost and improve the business process in terms of data integrity, mobile access and high availability.
  Pathiah Abdul Samat , Abdullah Mohd Zin and Zarina Shukur
  Problem statement: Model checking is an automated verification technique that can be used for verifying properties of a system. A number of model checking systems have been developed over the last few years. However, there is no guideline that is available for selecting the most suitable model checker to be used to model a particular system. Approach: In this study, we compare the use of four model checkers: SMV, SPIN, UPPAAL and PRISM for modeling a distributed control system. In particular, we are looking at the capabilities of the input languages of these model checkers for modeling this type of system. Limitations and differences of their input language are compared and analyses by using a set of questions. Results: The result of the study shows that although the input languages of these model checkers have a lot of similarities, they also have a significant number of differences. The result of the study also shows that one model checker may be more suitable than others for verifying this type of systems Conclusion: User need to choose the right model checker for the problem to be verified.
  Nadeem Alherbawi , Zarina Shukur and Rossilawati Sulaiman
  Image authenticity is a real issue in the digital forensic field since the wide spread of images and the spread of low-cost image processing software which make it easy to alter images and change them using hard to detect techniques. This study highlights the importance of image authentication and on which level a JPEG image could be altered. Also, it covers some techniques used in making forged images. Finally, it discusses some current techniques used in detecting and localizing forgeries in JPEG images.
  Abdo Ali A. Al-Wosabi and Zarina Shukur
  Since, the digital devices play essential roles in our daily life, system integrity is important. Thus, there is a need to propose appropriate and effective techniques/tools to verify that the original/pure Embedded Systems (ESs) have been used in those devices. We present our proposed system architecture for ESs integrity verification which includes two main phases: fetching an ES code at a server site (i.e., data center) and examining the ES at a remote site (using a designed user application). The integrity of that ES could be verified by comparing the computed hash value, result could show whether that system has been altered or tampered with. We integrate hash function (SHA-2) with a random key to calculate a unique digest value for a targeted system. Also, we use timestamps and nonce values, two secure keys and public key algorithm to design a security protocol.
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