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Articles by Z. Man
Total Records ( 6 ) for Z. Man
  N. Muhammad , Z. Man , M.A.B. Khalil and Y.A. Elsheikh
  In today’s world the energy crisis is the main concern. It has been tried to develop substitute materials of petroleum and other decreasing natural fuel resources. Biomass is an abundant and renewable resource and it impelled researcher to develop suitable and proficient ways for converting it to valuable chemicals, biofuels and biomaterials. Due to their several advantageous properties ionic liquid was used for the dissolution of biomass. Biomass after dissolution in ionic liquids was regenerated with reconstitutes solvents (acetone/water). The regenerated material was characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM and compared with untreated biomass. The regenerated material was found to exhibit more homogeneity in the microstructure and the fibrous nature of material disappeared after dissolution. The crystallinity of cellulose was changed from cellulose I to amorphous during dissolution and regeneration from ionic liquids.
  A.K. Ziyada , Z. Man , T. Murugesan , M.A. Bustam and C.D. Wilfred
  In this study, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium octylsulfosuccinate [P6,6,6,14][docusate] was synthesised by anion metathesis using sodium octylsulfosuccinate salt. The molecular structure of the synthesised IL was confirmed by using 1H NMR and elemental analysis and also physical properties such as density, viscosity and refractive index were studied as a function of temperature at the atmospheric pressure. The experimental values of density and refractive index decrease linearly with increasing temperature. The density, refractive index and viscosity of the present IL at 298.15 K are 0.9631 g cm-3, 1.47190 and 1806.1 mPa.s respectively. The results show that this IL possesses higher viscosity, similar density and refractive index compared to the other trihexyltetradecylphosphonium ILs.
  A. Muhammad , M.I. Abdul Mutalib , T. Murugesan , Z. Man and A. Bustam
  The growing interest in exploring the physical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) could be attributed towards the design of industrial processes based on ILs (nonvolatile) to replace organic solvents (highly volatile). The densities and viscosities of imidazolium based ILs have been measured and reported by a number of researchers at ambient pressure. However, the experimental physical property data for most of the ILs at high pressure is quite scarce due to the difficulties involved in the treatment of natural gas to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) at high pressures. Therefore, there is an immense need to apply correlations and thermodynamic Equation Of State (EOS) models to predict or estimate physical properties. The main objective of this work is to investigate the application of ‘Gardas and Coutinho method’ and ‘Modified Tait equation’ to estimate the densities and viscosities of two ILs: 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate; (C6mim) (BF4) and 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate; (C6mim) (PF6) at pressures up to 100 bar and at temperatures (298.15, 308.15, 318.15) K. The results show that these methods could be applied satisfactorily for estimating the density and viscosity of ionic liquids. The densities and viscosities of both ILs increased with the increase in pressure at all the studied temperatures. However, the effect of anion appeared to be significant on both physical properties for the studied ILs and found to be in decreasing order of (PF6) >(BF4).
  R. Nasir , H. Mukhtar and Z. Man
  The polymeric membrane is a well-known membrane due to ease of processing and mechanical stability. These membranes extensively used for the separation of carbon dioxide from methane but the applications of these membranes are limited in order to achieve high permeability and selectivity. In this study the amine polymeric membrane has been fabricated by the addition of N-methyl-diethanolamine in polyethersulfone solution, the N- methyl-2 pyrrolidone used as solvent. The characterization of fabricated membrane has been carried out in order to investigate the morphology, thermal properties and identification of functional group by using field emission scanning electron microscope, thermo gravimetric analyzer and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The permeability and selectivity study were also carried out by using pure carbon dioxide and methane. The permeability and selectivity has been increased as compared to pure polyethersulfone membrane.
  Syamsul B. Abdullah , Z. Man and M.A. Bustam
  The extraction of benzothiophene and xylene from n-dodecane with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([hmim][BF4]) ionic liquid (IL) was investigated. The influence of mass ratio of oil to IL, extracting time and operating temperature were studied for an optimized condition of the benzothiophene (BT) and xylene removal. The optimization process was analyzed using Central Composite Face-Centered Experimental Design by Design Expert Version 6.0.6 (Stat-Ease, USA). The satisfactory optimum mild conditions obtained were at a mass ratio (IL/oil) of 0.73 with extracting time of 10 min at operating temperature of 60°C. The adequacy of the model equation for predicting the optimum response values was validated using experimental data.
  R.H. Abdul Rahim , K.A. Azizli , Z. Man , T. Rahmiati and M.F. Nuruddin
  Alkali activator and materials rich in Si and Al are the requirements for the geopolymer synthesis. The common activator use is sodium hydroxide with silicate solution. There is limited literature on the mechanical property of geopolymer in the absence of silicate solution. In this study, fly ash was used as the raw material to provide Si and Al and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the only activator for the synthesis of geopolymer. This study describes the effect of varying the sodium hydroxide concentration with respect to curing time and temperature on mechanical properties of non-sodium silicate fly ash based geopolymer. The samples were prepared by mixing fly ash with 8, 10 and 12 M of NaOH concentration and cured in room temperature and 60°C for 1, 7 and 28 days. The highest alkali concentration of 12 M showed the fastest setting time and the highest compressive strength regardless of days of curing. The highest compressive strength obtained for curing at 60°C was 59.81 MPa and 45 min was recorded for the setting time. Meanwhile, at room temperature, the highest strength obtained was 17.71 MPa and 248 min for setting time.
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