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Articles by Z. Wang
Total Records ( 4 ) for Z. Wang
  S. Cerrate , F. Yan , Z. Wang , C. Coto , P. Sacakli and P.W. Waldroup
  Glycerine from biodiesel production was used as a pure energy source in broiler diets formulated to meet typical commercial standards. In the first experiment, glycerine was added at 0, 5, and 10% of the diet while in the second experiment glycerine was added at 0, 2.5, and 5%. Glycerine was assigned a metabolizable energy value of 3527 ME kcal/kg in formulating the diets. In each experiment the various treatments were assigned to eight replicate pens of 60 male broilers each. In the first experiment, birds fed diets with 5% glycerine did not differ significantly in performance from birds fed the control diet with no glycerine. Birds fed diets with 10% glycerine consumed significantly less feed than did those fed diets with 0 or 5% glycerine and consequently had significantly reduced body weight. It is felt that this was due in large part to reduced flow rate in the feeders used in this study as previous researchers have shown acceptance of higher levels of glycerine. In the second study, birds fed diets with 2.5 or 5% glycerine had growth rate and feed conversion that did not differ significantly from that of birds fed the diet with no glycerine. Breast yield as a percent of the dressed carcass was significantly greater for birds fed diets with 2.5 or 5% glycerine as compared to those fed the diet with no glycerine. These data indicate that glycerine from biodiesel can be a useful energy source for use in broiler diets. Concerns remain regarding acceptable levels of residual methanol resulting from separation of the fatty acids in biodiesel production.
  Z. Wang , L. A. Goonewardene , R. C. Yang , M. A. Price , M. Makarechian , J. Knapp , E. K. Okine and R. T. Berg
  Production records over a twenty-five year period (n=6047) from three synthetic beef lines, Beef Synthetic 1 (BS1), Beef Synthetic 2 (BS2) and Dairy Beef Synthetic (DBS), at the University of Alberta Kinsella Research Station were analyzed to determine genetic parameters and genetic trends for birth weight (BW) and pre-weaning gain to 200-d (WG). The lines were selected for high fertility in females, high pre- and post-weaning gain in males and against high BW in both sexes. The Multiple Traits Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood (MTDFREML) was used to estimate (co) variance components, direct (h2d) and maternal (h2m) heritability, direct (rgd) and maternal (rgm) genetic correlations. The h2d and h2m for BW were 0.45 and 0.10 respectively, and the h2d and h2m for WG were 0.19 and 0.12 respectively. The rgd and rgm between BW and WG was 0.32 and 0.18 respectively. In BS1, the average direct and maternal breeding value change for BW was 0.08 and 0.00kg yr-1 respectively, and for WG was 0.29 and 0.12 kg yr-1 respectively. Genetic trends similar to BS1 were observed in the BS2 and DBS lines for BW only. Under commercial situations, by phenotypic selection alone it is possible to improve WG with little or no increase in BW.
  Goonewardene L.A , Z. Wang , E. K. Okine , M. A. Price , Z. Wang , J. A. Basarab , L. A. Goonewardene , D. H. Crews, Jr , P. Ramsey , K.L. Lyle , N. French , E.K. Okine and S.S. Moore
  The objective of the study was to compare growth and maturing parameters of seven classes of meat livestock, derived by fitting the Richards equation and identify efficiencies and inefficiencies of growth and production relative to lifetime and slaughter. The livestock included elk, cattle (cows, bulls andsteers), goats (wether), pig (barrows), broiler chickens and emus. The mature weights derived were elk = 406.9, cows = 551.4, steers = 598.0, bulls = 624.9, goat-wethers = 44.5, pig-barrows = 195.4, broiler = 4.6 and emu = 49.5, all in kg. The absolute growth rates derived were elk = 150, cows = 496, steers = 1927, bulls = 2065, goat- ether = 147, pig-barrows = 468, broiler = 54 and emu = 68.4, all in g d . In general, all classes of livestock were between 19.8 - -136.2% mature at inflection and between 49 - 91% mature at slaughter. Broilers were 32 days old at inflection and slaughtered at 40 days, which was eight days post-inflection whereas, emus were slaughtered 435 days post inflection. Cattle were slaughtered when they were 84% mature and 259-278 days post inflection, while pigs were 49% mature at slaughter and 90 days post inflection. Although the time at slaughter is set by industry and often determined by the level of carcass finish, consideration should be given to biological growth efficiency, as the longer a species is held beyond inflection the more inefficient it becomes. In addition, the risk of death, sickness, increased feed costs per kg of gain, less tender beef with more fat, are usually associated with meat from older livestock.
  L. A. Goonewardene , R.K. Hand , Z. Wang , L. Al-Ani , R. Carlyon , E.K. Okine and R.C.Yang
  Data for the study were obtained over three years, from 2655 cows in 10 herds that had a history of sand cracks. The objectives were to establish the prevalence, intensity and severity of sand cracks, follow the same cows in successive years, and ascertain when cracks occur and if the severity changes over time. The prevalence of sand cracks on the forelimbs was 26.6% and on all limbs 27.4%. Older cows showed a higher (P<0.01) prevalence than younger cows and the Angus x Hereford crossbred and Red Angus had higher (P<0.01) prevalence than Shorthorn and Hereford. In general, 53-55% of the cows had a single crack and the number of cracks was independent of cow age, breed, year and cow condition score. Older cows had cracks that showed visible separation whereas more of the heifers had hairline cracks (P<0.01). The effects of year, breed and cow condition score had no effect (P>0.05) on severity score. Among the same cows represented in three consecutive years, the severity scores increased linearly (P<0.05) from the first to the third year, indicating a progressive increase in severity. It is therefore likely that the cracks become more severe with time and eliminating sand cracks by conventional management practices would be difficult.
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