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Articles by Yustinus Marsono
Total Records ( 10 ) for Yustinus Marsono
  Agus Wijanarka , Toto Sudargo , Eni Harmayani and Yustinus Marsono
  Background: Gayam (Inocarfus fagifer Forst.), a native plant of Indonesia has a good potential as a source of flour. Currently, gayam flour is made by conventional processing with poor quality. Objective: The study was to evaluate the effect of pre-gelatinization treatment on physicochemical and functional properties of gayam flour. Methodology: Pre-gelatinized gayam flour was prepared from unpeeled gayam seed by boiling at 100°C for 15, 30 or 45 min, followed by peeling, slicing, drying, grinding and sieving through a 60 mesh. Results: The pre-gelatinization treatment decreased the starch and amylose content, while moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates and dietary fiber content did not differ significantly. The longer pre-gelatinization time led to the higher of ΔE values and whiteness index, whereas pre-gelatinization for 45 min produced the highest ΔE values and whiteness index. Scanning electron microscopy showed the granules of the pre-gelatinized gayam flour were oval, rough surface, bigger and heterogenous size, while native flour was spherical, smooth surface, smaller and homogeneous size. The pre-gelatinization treatment increased water holding capacity and swelling power but decreased oil holding capacity and solubility. Pasting temperature and setback viscosity of pre-gelatinized gayam flour increased as the pre-gelatinization time increased but it had no effect on the peak, trough, breakdown and final viscosity. Conclusion: The significant differences in physicochemical and functional properties were observed among the pre-gelatinized gayam flours with respect to starch, amylose content, color, microstructure, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity and pasting properties. The pre-gelatinization treatment of gayam seed increased the whiteness index, water holding capacity and swelling power.
  Oki Krisbianto , Mary Astuti and Yustinus Marsono
  Black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) is rich in anthocyanin hence it could be used as functional food such as cereal for hyperglycemic patient. Black rice cereal supplemented with black soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) (RSC) was prepared as isocaloric feed for three groups of hyperglycemic rats. The first group (F0) was treated only with RSC, while the other two also receive 40 ppm (F4) and 80 ppm (F8) black rice bran anthocyanin extract (BRE). Non- hyperglycemic and hyperglycemic rats which were fed with standard feed were used as control (C) and hyperglycemic group (H) respectively. After 6 weeks experiments, blood glucose level, insulin resistance and MDA value were decreased in treatment groups, which were more significant in F4 and F8 than F0, while FRAP was increased. RSC and BRE alleviated inflammatory and steatosis in pancreas, liver and kidney as shown by the tissue preparation with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H &E) staining.
  Priyanto Triwitono , Yustinus Marsono , Agnes Murdiati and Djagal Wiseso Marseno
  Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the physiological effects of mung bean starch RS-3 on the obesity index and adipose cell profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. Methodology: A total of 35 male, 1 month old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups and given Fructose Medium Fat (FMF) feed containing Corn Starch (CS), mung bean starch (MS) or Resistant Starch (RS) for 6 weeks. In addition, the diet AIN 93G was used as the standard (STD) feed. Results: The results showed that the rats that were fed the RS diet (FMF-RS3-14 and FMF-RS3-28) had a lower feed intake and weight gain compared to those fed the fructose medium fat-corn starch (FMF-CS) or FMF-mung bean starch (FMF-MS) diets. The intervention of the FMF-CS diet led to an increase in the obesity index, whereas, the RS diet decreased the obesity index. Conclusion: The replacement of CS with RS at a dose of 28 g/1000 cal (FMF-RS3-28) for 6 weeks was effective in preventing obesity, with a Lee obesity index of 301.8.
  Enny Purwati Nurlaili , Mary Astuti , Yustinus Marsono and Sri Naruki
  Rice is a leading staple food in Southeast Asia and it is typically milled before consumption. Black rice found in Indonesia is classified as Oryza sativa L. The color in the grain is caused by anthocyanin pigments that give the hulled rice a dark purple color. We found that extracts from black rice bran have high levels of iron and anthocyanins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of an aqueous extract of black rice bran to prevent anemia and hypertriglyceridemia in vivo. Anemia and hypertriglyceridemia were induced in twenty-eight three-week old male albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus); the rats were divided into a control (C) group or 3 treatment groups of bran (B), bran extract (E), or extraction residue (R). The results showed that differences among the groups based on feed consumption, Hemoglobin Regeneration Efficiency (HRE) and the erythrocyte morphology of rats were not significant. Black rice bran aqueous extract prevented anemia and hypertriglyceridemia by increasing the hemoglobin Hb level from 7.21 to 12.96 g/dl and by reducing triglycerides from 179.29 to 56.55 mg/dl.
  Nani Ratnaningsih , Suparmo , Eni Harmayani and Yustinus Marsono
  Background and Objective: Legumes were studied extensively in the past because of their protein contents but they have now become valuable for their low glycemic index (GI), which is attributed to high amylose and resistant starch contents. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index (eGI) of native starches from five varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivated in Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Five varieties of cowpea (namely KT4, KT5, KT7, KT8 and KTL) were extracted their starches using wet milling method. The in vitro digestibility and eGI of cowpea starches were determined using method of Englyst and Goni. Results: Cowpea starches had low RDS content, from 4.09% (KT7) to 7.51% (KT4) but high SDS, from 19.66% (KT5) to 27.07% (KTL) and RS, from 65.75% (KTL) to 76.15% (KT5). The RAG and SAG contents of the cowpea starches ranged from 3.77% (KT7) to 6.79% (KT8) and from 18.56% (KT5) to 25.13% (KT8), respectively. The eGI of cowpea starches varied from 45.46±0.23 (KT5) to 48.14±0.38 (KT8). Conclusion: Cowpea starches have high SDS and RS contents and low GI, therefore they are suitable as a dietary carbohydrate alternative for the management of obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers.
  Nurfitri Ekantari , Eni Harmayani , Yudi Pranoto and Yustinus Marsono
  Background: Calcium is one of the important mineral as a constituent of bone in human, hence critically needed to prevent osteoporosis. Milk is considered as the main source of calcium, however, can not be consumed by those with lactose intolerant. On the other hand, Spirulina plat ensis , a species of microalgae is known for its high calcium level, particularly those cultivated with sea water, thus can be used as calcium source alternative. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the bioavailability of calcium from Spirulina platensis and compared it with high calcium milk and calcium carbonate by using hypocalcemic Sprague Dawley rats fed with vitamin D-deficient diet. Methodology: Thirty male rats were divided into 5 groups of six rats each. The rats were fed different diets for 8 weeks. The diets included standard diet (control), vitamin D-deficient diet (DVD), DVD+calcium carbonate (DVDCa), DVD+highcalcium milk (DVDMCa) and DVD+Spirulina diet (DVDSp). Results: The results showed that DVDSp group was able to retain calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphates level in serum compared to control group (p>0.005). Femur bone integrity and bone mass density of hypocalcemic rats fed with S. platensis contained diet showed better results. Conclusion: It was concluded that bioavailability of calcium from Spirulina platensis was higher than those of milk and calcium carbonate.
  Atina Rahmawati , Agnes Murdiati , Yustinus Marsono and Sri Anggrahini
  Background and Objective: Complex carbohydrate is a mixture of dietary fibre and starch present in food. The maximum complex carbohydrate content of white jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) can be achieved by treating white jack bean with three autoclaving-cooling cycles. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of complex carbohydrate from white jack bean following autoclaving-cooling on hypercholesterolemic rats and to assess its bile acid binding ability (in vitro). Methodology: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 6 groups: K1, a healthy control group; K2, a negative control group (hypercholesterol); K3, a positive control group (simvastatin); K4, a group administered a diet containing complex carbohydrate flour (5%), K5: a group administered a diet containing complex carbohydrate flour treated with autoclaving-cooling (5%) and K6, a group administered a diet containing complex carbohydrate flour treated with autoclaving-cooling (10%). The intervention lasted 4 weeks. The parameters observed were body weight, lipid profile, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile, digesta cholesterol and bile acid binding ability (in vitro). Results: The hypercholesterolemic rats of the K6 group, which were fed a diet containing complex carbohydrate flour treated with autoclaving-cooling, exhibited maintained body weight and an improved lipid profile equivalent to those of the K3 positive control group (simvastatin). The rats of the K6 group could produce SCFAs with an acetic:propionic:butyric molar ratio of 50:39:11. The complex carbohydrate flour treated with autoclaving-cooling was able to bind 17.54% of the cholic acid and 32.43% of the deoxycholic acid. The K6 group was able to bind 100.36 mg/100 g digesta cholesterol. Conclusion: The K6 group achieved the best results in terms of maintaining the body weight and improving the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats to levels equivalent to those of the K3 positive control group (simvastatin). The K6 group also exhibited an improved SCFA molar ratio with the ability to bind bile acids (in vitro) and digesta cholesterol.
  Endah Puspitojati , Muhammad Nur Cahyanto , Yustinus Marsono and Retno Indrati
  Background and Objective: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from various food sources have been studied extensively. We are interested in studying the inhibition of ACE from fermented tempe made from the jack bean, which is a commonly used source of plant-based protein. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal incubation period for the production of peptides with high ACE inhibitory activity. Materials and Methods: After soaking and boiling, the jack beans were inoculated with tempe inoculum and incubated for 0-120 h. During the incubation, various parameters, such as proteolytic activity, peptide content, hydrolysis degree, protein pattern and ACE inhibition, were monitored. All the parameters were measured using standard methods. Results: Tempe fermentation caused hydrolysis of the jack bean protein, producing soluble high molecular weight proteins (from previously insoluble) and protein fragments (monitored from SDS PAGE data). The highest protein hydrolysis occurred after 96 h fermentation period, which were observed from the highest proteolytic activity (25.39 units g–1), hydrolysis degree (19.85%) and peptide content (6.05 mg mL–1). The highest ACE inhibitory activity did not coincide with the highest levels of protein hydrolysis but rather were obtained after 72 h of tempe fermentation (IC50 = 1.03 mg mL–1). Conclusion: Jack bean tempe is a potential source of ACE inhibitory peptides, the highest ACE inhibitory activity occurred after 72 h of incubation.
  Welli Yuliatmoko , Agnes Murdiati , Yudi Pranoto and Yustinus Marsono
  Background and Objectives: Cavendish Jepara 30 (Musa cavendishii ) banana pseudostem in Indonesia is very abundant and has not been utilized because it is considered to be waste. The pseudostem contains dietary fibre, resistant starch (RS) and antioxidants that are strongly affected by several factors such as plant varieties and processing techniques. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of blanching and soaking in sodium bisulphite solution on changes in dietary fibre, resistant starch, antioxidants and the functional properties of Cavendish Jepara 30 banana pseudostem flour. Materials and Methods: Banana pseudostem of Cavendish Jepara 30 varieties were obtained from PT. Nusantara Tropical Farm Central Lampung, Indonesia. Preparation of the banana pseudostem flour included a blanching treatment at a temperature of 100°C for 10 min or soaking in 1% sodium bisulphite solution for 90 min. Results: The blanching treatment significantly increased the amount of soluble fibre by 3.55%, RS by 10.33%, total phenolic acids by 11.19 mg/100 g and antioxidant activity by 6.15% radical scavenging activity (RSA) but decreased the amount of insoluble fibre by 5.78%. The soaking treatment significantly increased the RS by 9.38% and the antioxidant activity by 12.5% RSA but decreased the insoluble fibre by 6.87%, the total fibre by 6.42% and the total phenolic acids by 17.52 mg/100 g. The blanching treatment also significantly increased the water holding capacity by10.81%, the swelling capacity by 13.87% and the cation exchange capacity was 9.75 meq kg–1. The microscopic structure of the flour after the blanching treatment was more porous and hollower than the natural pseudostem flour. Conclusion: Blanching treatment significantly increased the soluble fibre, RS, total phenolic acid content, antioxidant activity, water holding capacity, swelling capacity and cation exchange capacity of banana pseudostem flour. Blanching had no effect on the oil holding capacity of flour.
  Yustinus Marsono , Rhaesfaty Galih Putri and Elizabeth Desy Arianti
  Background and Objectives: Dietary fiber is an important component in the diet and has important effects on health, such as reducing plasma glucose and cholesterol levels. FiberCreme is a commercial nondairy creamer that uses a variety of oligosaccharides as a source of fiber to replace the glucose component of conventional creamer combined with healthy oils as a palatable functional ingredient .The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the replacement of dietary fiber with FiberCreme on lowering glucose and improvement of the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemia-diabetic rats. The possible mechanism of lowering cholesterol and glucose level was also studied in vitro. Materials and Methods: The diets used included a standard diet and a FiberCreme diet. Standard diets were fed to the rats in the control-healthy (CH), control-diabetic (CD) and metformin (METF) groups. FiberCreme diets were given to rats in the FC50, FC100 and FC150 groups. Results: The results showed that the FC100 diet decreased glucose by 56%, which is similar to the decrease seen with metformin (59%). The FC100 diet also reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides by 84.2 mg dL–1 (46%), 31.69 mg dL–1 (43%), 18.9 mg dL–1 (15%), respectively and increased the HDL level from 24.1-50.2 mg dL–1 (108%). Conclusion: The in vitro study indicated that one of the mechanisms of lowering glucose was through the inhibition of glucose absorption in the small intestine and the mechanism of lowering cholesterol was through bile acid binding to the FiberCreme.
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