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Articles by Yoshiaki Hikasa
Total Records ( 2 ) for Yoshiaki Hikasa
  Shin- Ichi Yokota and Yoshiaki Hikasa
  We have previously demonstrated leporine platelets lack imidazoline (I)1 receptors and effects of imidazoline α2-adrenergic agents on platelet aggregation differ in dogs and rabbits. In order to compare the effects of various α-adrenergic agents on canine and leporine intraplatelet cAMP ([cAMP]i) and thromboxane B2 ([TXB2]i), elevations of both forskolin-induced [cAMP]i and adrenaline-collagen-induced [TXB2]i were determined using immunoassay. The α2-adrenoceptor antagonists were ineffective in canine platelets, but the α2-adrenoceptor agonists adrenaline inhibited forskolin-induced increase in [cAMP]i. Adrenaline was ineffective in leporine platelets, but α2-adrenoceptor antagonists were effective on forskolin-induced increase in [cAMP]i. Adrenaline-collagen-induced elevation of [TXB2]i in canine platelets was not inhibited by the non-imidazoline α2-adrenoceptor agonist xylazine, but was inhibited by α2-adrenoceptor antagonists, an imidazoline α2-adrenoceptor agonist (naphazoline) and an imidazoline compound (antazoline). In contrast, α2-adrenoceptor agonists were ineffective on [TXB2]i in leporine platelet-rich plasma and all drugs were ineffective on [TXB2]i in leporine washed platelets, demonstrating various imidazoline or nonimidazoline α2-adrenergic agents effectively inhibited forskolin-induced elevation of [cAMP]i and adrenaline–collagen-induced [TXB2]i and the effective drugs differed between dogs and rabbits. We propose imidazoline α2-adrenergic agents suppress cAMP production via the α2-adrenoceptor while exerting a negative control on TXB2 generation via the arachidonic acid-thromboxane A2 pathway.
  Kazuki Harada , Aiko Iguchi and Yoshiaki Hikasa
  Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) is an important in vitro parameter of antimicrobial potency but has not yet been measured for Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, the main causative organism of canine pyoderma. This study was carried out to determine the MBC of representative antimicrobials against mecA-negative and -positive S. pseudintermdius. Fifty nine mecA-negative and 33 mecA-positive isolates were tested for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of eight antimicrobials by Broth Microdilution Method. Subsequently, MBC was determined as concentration at which ≥99.9% decrease in bacterial counts was achieved by sub-cultivating suspensions at concentrations greater than MIC. As a result, cephalexin (LEX), Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid (AMC), Orbifloxacin (ORB) and Fosfomycin (FOF) had MBC:MIC ratio of ≤4 whereas trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (SXT) had MBC:MIC ratio of ≤16. In contrast, Minocycline (MIN), Erythromycin (ERY) and Clindamycin (CLI) had MBC:MIC ratio of ≥4. In mecA-negative isolates, among the tested antimicrobials, FOF had the lowest MBC-resistance rate (8.5%) followed by AMC (13.6%) LEX (16.9%) ORB (33.9%) SXT (33.9%) whereas MIN, ERY and CLI had high MBC-resistance rates (71.2-96.6%). On the other hand, in mecA-positive isolates, all tested antimicrobials had >50% of MBC-resistance rates (69.7-100%). Notably, the resistant-level MIC value of MIN was not detected in either mecA-negative or -positive isolates. The present data indicate that FOF is a superior bactericidal drug against mecA-negative isolates whereas MINO can be effective bacteriostatic drugs for mecA-positive and -negative isolates of S. pseudintermedius.
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