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Articles by Y.M. Goh
Total Records ( 12 ) for Y.M. Goh
  S. Buhari , H. Kalthum , Y.M. Goh and S.H. Gan
  Surgery and anesthesia causes fluctuations in hemodynamics which can lead to subtherapeutic drug levels and usually therapeutic failure, making postsurgical pain management difficult. The influence of surgery and anesthesia on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous tramadol in dogs was investigated. Tramadol (3 mg kg-1) was administered during premedication to female dogs (n = 6) undergoing ovariohysterectomy (Group 1) and to another non-surgery group (n = 6) of female dogs (Group 2) and the pharmacokinetics were compared between the groups. The outcome of this study showed that surgery and anesthesia affected the pharmacokinetics of tramadol, as indicated by a two-fold increase in the elimination half-life (1.10±0.18 h in Group 1 compared to 0.49±0.07 h in Group 2) and a three-fold increase in the area under the curve (770.21±117.76 ng.h mL-1 for Group 1 compared to 117.61±85.16 ng.h mL-1 for Group 2). Clearance was also significantly lower (3.98±0.56 mL min-1 kg-1) in Group 1 than in Group 2 (21.06±9.34 mL kg-1). Serum levels of both interleukin-6 and β-endorphin were increased at 6 and 9 h in the surgery group which further indicates that the rapid metabolism and clearance of tramadol in dogs are correlated with postsurgical pain. Therefore, re-administration of tramadol at 3 h is necessary for pain control. This suggests that surgery has a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol in dogs.
  K. Abuelfatah , A.B.Z. Zuki , Y.M. Goh and A.Q. Sazili
  Recently, feeding animals with dietary essential fatty acids have become of interest in animal nutrition. This is mainly to enrich their content in animal products in order to improve consumer health. Most of these studies have been focused in sheep and cattle while goats received a little attention. This study was conducted to assess effects of feeding different levels of linseed as a source of n-3 fatty acid on goat’s growth performance, apparent digestibility and carcass characteristics. Twenty-four 5-month old crossbred Boer bucks were divided into three groups (n = 8) and assigned into three treatment diets differed in level of linseed for 110 days. The diets were L0, L10 or L20 contained 0% (control), 10 and 20% (w/w) linseed, respectively. In the last 14 days of the trial, four animals from each group were placed in metabolic crates for collection of feces. At the end of the trial all goats were slaughtered. The results showed that the final weight, total weight gain and apparent digestibility were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05). Goats fed L20 diet had lower (p<0.05) feed intake (669.30 g day-1) compared to L0 (705.21 g day-1) or L10 (698.51 g day-1). The gain: Feed ratio was higher (p<0.05) in L20 compared to other treatments. The internal fat weight was heavier (p<0.05) in L20 (550.57 g) compared to L10 (373.00 g), while in L0 was (469.40 g) without significant difference from both. The percentage of lean was better (p<0.05) in L10 (67.82) compared to L0 (65.25) or L20 (64.78). It is concluded that linseed can be included to goat diets up to 20% (w/w), without adverse effects on growth and carcass quality of goat. Feeding goat 20% linseed can increase feed efficiency while 10% can improve goat carcass traits.
  I.H. Lokman , Hasan S.A. Jawad , Y.M. Goh , A.Q. Sazili , M.M. Noordin and A.B.Z. Zuki
  In most animals, myofibers number gets established before birth and postnatal growth is due to muscle hypertrophy, with very little contribution from muscle hyperplasia. The muscle myofibers exhibit different contractile, metabolic, physiological, chemical and morphological characteristics but the interaction between these factors and their outcome is not fully understood. Since, there is lack of literature regarding the skeletal muscle morphology of Red jungle fowl (RJ) and Malaysian village chicken (VC), therefore, the present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the morphology of skeletal muscle of Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus Spadiceus) and Malaysian Village Chicken (Gallus gallus Domesticus) and commercial broiler chicken. A total of 150 unsexed birds consisting of 50 Red jungle fowl (RJ), 50 Malaysian village chicken (VC) and 50 commercial broiler (CB) were used in this study. Pectoralis major and bicep femoris were analyzed at the age of 1, 10, 20, 56 and 120 days post hatch. The number of muscle fibers in the breast and thigh muscles increased as the age advanced and the slow growing birds (RJ and VC) had higher Type I muscle fibers in breast and thigh muscles than fast growing CB. The percentage of Type 1 muscle fibers increased as the age advanced due to prolonged activity and also the type of muscle fibers changed throughout the age and activity. The importance of muscle fiber type changes is applicable to determine the future production of birds especially with regard to better quality meat of VC and RJ.
  M. Karami , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili and Y.M. Goh
  This study investigated the effect of different antioxidants of dietary supplementation with Andrographis paniculata, turmeric and α-tocopherol on lipid and color stability of Infraspinatous (IS) kacang crossbred goat kids muscle. Total 4 treatments of 8 animals each were randomly selected, consisting of control (CN), 400 mg kg-1 Vitamin E (VE), 0.5% kg-1 DMI Turmeric (TU) and 0.5% kg-1 DMI Andrographis paniculata (AP). After 100 days feeding period, goats were slaughtered and infraspinatous muscle was sampled. The muscle was vacuum-packaged and displayed for 0, 7 and 14 days in a chiller at 3-4°C. Percent of drip loss in the IS muscle were not significantly different among of dietary supplementation antioxidants (VE, TU and AP) with CN. Period of display did not affect (p>0.05) drip loss in IS muscle. Percent of cooking loss in the IS muscle were different among of dietary supplementation antioxidants (VE, TU and AP) and AP supplemented diet only decreased significantly (p<0.05) cooking loss with CN treatment. Increasing the aging time had not significant effects on percent cooking loss in the IS muscle. Warner-bratzler shear force was not affected by dietary supplementation antioxidants in IS muscle. However, increasing the aging time significantly (p<0.05) decreased Warner-bratzler shear force value or improved tenderness of IS muscle in kacang male goat kids. Supplementation of dietary antioxidant turmeric improved the IS muscle L* (lightness), a* value (redness), b* (yellowness) values, Chroma, Hue angle values and E enhanced significantly (p<0.05). Dietary antioxidants supplementation decreased TBARS value however, VE significantly (p<0.05) decreased lipid oxidation in IS muscle of kacang crossbred goat kid. TBARS value increased during the first seven days store in refrigerator but not significant (p>0.05). TBARS value high significantly increased in aging time at 14 days (p<0.01). Dietary antioxidants supplementation and sampling periods of blood plasma decreased (p<0.05). TBARS value of blood plasma of goats. In conclusion, feeding herbal antioxidants supplementation of male goat kids resulted in a general improvement of blood plasma and IS muscle oxidative stability as compared to feeding a control diet. Meat color deterioration, measured as changes of color descriptors aging (over) time was less pronounced in IS muscle from animals fed herbs (TU and AP) and VE diets than in IS muscle from CN fed goats.
  M. Karami , A.R. Alimon , A.Q. Sazili and Y.M. Goh
  This study investigated the effect of different antioxidants of dietary supplementation with Andrographis paniculata, turmeric and α-tocopherol on lipid and color stability of Infraspinatous (IS) kacang crossbred goat kids muscle. Four treatments of eight animals each were randomly selected consisting of Control (CN), 400 mg kg-1 Vitamin E (VE), 0.5% kg-1 DMI Turmeric (TU) and 0.5% kg-1 DMI Andrographis paniculata (AP). After 100 days feeding period, goats were slaughtered and infraspinatous muscle was sampled. The muscle was vacuum-packaged and displayed for 0, 7 and 14 days in a chiller at 3-4°C. Percent of drip loss in the IS muscle were not significantly different among of dietary supplementation antioxidants (VE, TU and AP) with CN. Period of display did not affect (p>0.05) drip loss in IS muscle. Percent of cooking loss in the IS muscle were different among of dietary supplementation antioxidants (VE, TU and AP) and AP supplemented diet only decreased significantly (p<0.05) cooking loss with CN treatment. Increasing the aging time had not significant effects on percent cooking loss in the IS muscle. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not affected by dietary supplementation antioxidants in IS muscle. However, Increasing the aging time significantly (p<0.05) decreased Warner-Bratzler shear force value or improved tenderness of IS muscle in kacang male goat kids. Supplementation of dietary antioxidant turmeric improved the IS muscle L* (lightness), a* value (redness), b* (yellowness) values, Chroma, Hue angle values and E enhanced significantly (p<0.05). Dietary antioxidants supplementation decreased TBARS value however, VE significantly (p<0.05) decreased lipid oxidation in IS muscle of kacang crossbred goat kid. TBARS value increased during the first 7 days store in refrigerator but not significant (p>0.05). TBARS value high significantly increased in aging time at 14 days (p<0.01). Dietary antioxidants supplementation and sampling periods of blood plasma decreased (p<0.05) TBARS value of blood plasma of goats. In conclusion, feeding herbal antioxidants supplementation of male goat kids resulted in a general improvement of blood plasma and IS muscle oxidative stability as compared to feeding a control diet. Meat color deterioration, measured as changes of color descriptors aging (over) time was less pronounced in IS muscle from animals fed herbs (TU and AP) and VE diets than in IS muscle from CN-fed goats.
  M.B. Achenef , A.K. Arifah , Y.M. Goh , A.Q. Sazili , O. Fauziah , Z.A. Zakaria , A. Zuraini and M.N. Somchit
  Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs) are group of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bonds and believed to have many health promoting effects. The present study focused on the quantitative analysis of CLAs in liver, Superficial Pectoral (SP), Longissimus Dorsi (LD) and Semimembranosus (SM) muscles of local Malaysian Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle slaughtered for human consumption. Fatty acids were extracted using Folch method and determined by gas chromatography. The average content of CLAs in the liver, SP, LD and SM muscles were 38.71, 18.24, 11.03 and 13.04 mg/100 g of sample, respectively. The quantity of CLAs in the liver was significantly (p<0.05) higher than other samples. The percentages of cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer were 63.39, 76.04, 90.66 and 82.82% of total CLAs in the liver, SP, LD and SM muscles, respectively. Positive correlations between CLAs and trans-11-octadecenoic acid concentration were observed in all samples. This study confirmed that meat from KK cattle could be the potential source of CLA but still its content has to be improved to make their meat more beneficial for consumers.
  A.L. Tan , M. Ebrahimi , T. Hajjar , S. Vidyadaran , A.Q. Sazili , M.A. Rajion and Y.M. Goh
  This study was conducted to investigate the effects of modifying the n-6:n-3 Fatty Acid Ratio (FAR) of diets using fish oil, soybean oil and butter on growth performance and the fatty acid profile of rat fed with commercial concentrate diet. Fifty individually housed Sprague-Dawley rats (average of 130±2 g of body weight) were fed concentrates at 5% of body weight daily. The treatments consisted of dietary n-6:n-3 FAR of 1.94:1, 5.67:1, 51.82:1 and 61.69:1. After feeding for 20 weeks in individual cages, rats were sacrificed 15 h after feeding and samples of blood were collected. Increasing dietary saturated fatty acid increased the body weight significantly in compared to other treatment groups. Concentrations of n-6:n-3 FAR in plasma increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing dietary n-6:n-3 FAR. Concentrations of C18:3 n-3 decreased (p<0.001) in the diet with high level of soybean oil whereas that of C18:2n-6 did not change in all treatment groups (p>0.05) in rat plasma with different n-6:n-3 FAR. Proportions of oleic acid in plasma were unchanged by diet. The proportion of Arachidonic Acid (AA) decreased (p<0.05) in plasma of rat that fed with low level of n-6:n-3 FAR in compare to the diet with higher level. Proportions of all measured long chain n-3 fatty acids were greater in plasma when diets contained more C22:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 from fish oil. By decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 FAR, the proportions of long chain n-3 fatty acids in plasma increased dramatically; specifically, 22:6 n-3 and 22:5 n-3.
  Z.A. Aghwan , A.Q. Sazili , A.R. Alimon , Y.M. Goh and M.A. Hilmi
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of supplementing inorganic Selenium (Se), Iodine (I) and combination of both on their concentrations in serum, skeletal muscle and organs of 24 local Kacang crossbred meat goats. Four dietary treatments of six goats each were randomly allotted to basal diet without supplementation (background only) as control (T1), basal diet + 0.6 mg Se kg-1 DM (T2), basal diet + 0.6 mg I kg-1 DM (T3) or basal diet with combination of 0.6 mg Se + 0.6 mg I kg-1 DM (T4) for 100 consecutive days. Serum samples were collected at days 0, 30, 60 and 95 for the determination of Se and I concentrations. Semitendinosus (ST) muscle, liver and kidney were also collected, vacuum packaged and stored frozen until assayed for the Se and I levels. The levels of I and Se in the serum of supplemented groups (T2, T3 and T4) were significantly higher compared to control (T1). In comparison with the control animals (T1) I and Se concentrations in the ST muscle, kidney and liver were also higher (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The results demonstrated the potential of Se and I dietary supplementation employed in this study to increase the concentrations of both elements in the serum, muscle, liver and kidney of goats.
  M. Ebrahimi , M.A. Rajion , Y.M. Goh , A.Q. Sazili , A.F. Soleimani and J.T. Schonewille
  Twenty four goats were allocated to three groups (n = 8) and fed either a control diet Without Oil Palm Fronds (CON), a diet incorporated with 25% Oil Palm Fronds (OPFM) or 50% Oil Palm Fronds (OPFH) for 100 days to evaluate their growth rates, carcass characteristics and subcutaneous fatty acid profiles. Animals in all three groups exhibited similar final body weights (p>0.05). The OPFH group showed a significant linear reduction (p<0.05) in dressing percentage, warm carcass weight and back fat thickness and total muscle when compared to the CON group. The total n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) concentrations in the subcutaneous fat of the OPFH animals were significantly higher (linear, p<0.05) than the CON group. The diet containing 25% of oil palm fronds did not produce any adverse effects on the growth performance and carcass characteristics. This demonstrates an environmental-friendly way of utilizing agricultural waste by products for the small ruminant industry in tropical countries growing oil palm tree.
  M.B. Achenef , A.K. Arifah , Y.M. Goh , A.Q. Sazili , O. Fauziah , A. Zuraini , M.N. Somchit and Z.A. Zakaria
  This study was focused on the quantitative analysis of Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs) in rumen liquor and assessment of the relationship between CLAs and other carbon 18 fatty acids and rumen pH of cattle slaughtered for meat consumption. The fatty acids were extracted using modified Folch method and determined by gas chromatography. The mean (n = 22) level of CLAs in the rumen liquor was 14.97 ±7.46 mg/100 mL. Cis-9, trans-11(c9, t11) was the dominant isomer of CLA followed by trans-10,cis-12 (t10, c12). The level of CLAs was positively correlated with the concentration of octadecatrienoic (18:3), cis-9, cis-12 octadecadienoic (18:2), trans-11octadecenoic (18:1) and octadecenoic (18:0) acids. Ruminal pH was positively correlated with the amount of c9, t11 and total CLA and negatively correlated with t10, c12 CLA isomer. All these correlations and relationships indicated that CLAs production in the rumen is dependent on availability of carbon 18 fatty acids and pH of the rumen liquor.
  A.W. Tekeleselassie , M.A. Rajion , Y.M. Goh , M. Moteshakeri , A.F Soleimani and M. Ebrahimi
  Insulin resistance is a growing worldwide syndrome that predispose human to a number of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Various studies have indicated that insulin action is highly influenced by diet compositions particularly dietary fat intake and proportion of n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA). The current study was designed to assess the influence of High Fat Diet (HFD) with different n-6: n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios (FAR) on insulin sensitivity, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and lipoprotein profile. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups and received the isocaloric high fat diets enriched with either high n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio (HFAR), medium n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio (MFAR), low n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio (LFAR) and compared with control rats fed standard chow (CTRL). The plasma insulin level of HFAR fed rats manifested significantly (P<0.05) higher concentration in most of the time points compared to the other groups. The corresponding insulin AUC (ng/L/120min) and insulin sensitivity index of HFAR fed rats appeared to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than CTRL (335.5±38.5), LFAR (273.7±37.6) and MFAR (265.9±21.7) groups. Blood lipid profile were found to be healthier in the LFAR and MFAR supplemented groups with significantly (P<0.05) lower total cholesterol and TAG levels. This study showed the possible protective effect against insulin resistance when low n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio in high fat diets are applied in a rat model.
  S.S. Kee , B.M.T. Shamsul and Y.M. Goh
  The statistics for a 10 years periods (1997-2007) shows an increasing number of road traffic accidents in Malaysia. Amongst, commuting accidents, which involved bus carsh are highest increased from year 2006-2007. Human errors have been identified as main reasons behind these fatal crashes compare to others. This study aims to determine the factors, which cause the differences of driving performance between two driving groups in related with environmental condition and road conditions in a simulated daytime and night-time driving. Fifty healthy male subjects, aged between 23-53 years old were divided into two groups and took part in one of the two different driving sessions (simulated daytime or night time driving). The total length of each simulated driving journey is 250 km. Outcomes were measured in terms of driver’s driving performance (RORI and LSV index) in different of environmental and road conditions. The ambient temperature, Carbon dioxide (CO2) level and lighting conditions were regulated throughout the experiment. The study showed that occupational drivers perform better rather than non-occupational drivers whenever the driving conditions and environmental factors considered. However, no difference of driving performance found between two driving groups in different of road types. Driver’s age and driving experience was significantly correlated with both RORI and LSV index in an overall study. Occupational drivers perform better when considered the driving condition and environmental effect, indicating that drivers with extended age and prior experience tend to perform better.
 
 
 
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