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Articles by Y.A. Geidam
Total Records ( 7 ) for Y.A. Geidam
  Y.A. Geidam , H.A. Kumshe , M.Y. Bukar-Kolo , I.A. Gulani and Z.N. Margimari
  Chick quality assessment was carried out on layer day-old chicks supplied to Maiduguri. A total of 30 layer day-old chicks, comprising of 10 chicks each from three major suppliers were used for this study. Physical, microbiological and serological qualities were assessed. Although the chicks from source C had a higher mean body weight (33.1±0.4 g), there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the mean body weight among chicks from all sources. Similarly, no significant difference (p>0.05) was found in the agility between the three sources. However, chicks from source C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher mean chick length (18.2±0.21 cm) than chicks from other sources. Ten percent mortality was recorded in chicks from source A, while no mortality was recorded in chicks from sources B and C. Hundred percent of the chicks from sources A and C had their navel completely closed while 90% navel closure was observed from source B. None of the three sources had chicks with any form of physical deformity. Seven different bacterial organisms were isolated from the cloacal and navel swabs of chicks from the different sources with Escherichia coli being the most prevalent bacteria isolated from all sources. Serological quality showed better protection against Newcastle disease than against IBD among chicks from all sources. The study revealed mixed qualities among chicks from the different sources. Minimum standards are suggested to be set for physical, microbiological and serological qualities and a regulatory body should also be established to ensure strict adherence to the minimum standards of chicks supplied to farmers in Nigeria.
  Y.A. Geidam , A.G. Ambali and P.A. Onyeyili
  Resistance of some bacteria, especially some stains of E. coli to common antimicrobial agents has created an urgent need to develop alternative antimicrobial drugs from herbs that are safe, cheap and may overcome the resistance of the pathogens. The crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf which is known to possess some antibacterial properties was further subjected to sequential fractionation with organic solvents (chloroform, ethyl acetate, normal butanol) of different polarity. This was done until the organic layer was visibly clear to obtain chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol soluble fractions and residual aqueous fraction. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of organic solvents soluble fractions and residual fraction of the extract on some gram positive and gram negative microbes were carried out. The different fractions showed variation in phytochemical constituency and thus in their antibacterial properties. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the extract showed broad spectrum antibacterial properties against all the organisms tested. The fraction also showed a good activity against E. coli at a relatively lower concentration and hence could possibly be use against E. coli infections.
  K.A. Sanda , H.A. Grema , Y.A. Geidam and Y.M. Bukar-Kolo
  In recent years, the use of herbal products has been increasing in developing countries such as Nigeria. The common guava tree (Psidium guajava) is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae which is native to tropical and subtropical countries. It is popular in an indigenous system of folk medicine. Traditionally guava is used for the treatment of various ailments like diarrhoea wounds, rheumatism, lung problems, ulcers etc. Psidium guajava L. contains a number of major pharmacologically active ingredients such as flavonoids, guayavolic acid, guavanoic acid, guajadial, guajaverin and so many other active principles. This review summarizes the current knowledge of major pharmacological constituents with major emphasis on traditional and pharmacological activities. This plant reported to display various biological activities like antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-allergy, anti-plasmodial, anti-spasmodic, cardioactive, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory anti-nociceptive and antitussive activity. In view of its wide pharmacological and biological activities, it seems to be having a great therapeutic potential.
  J.R. Lawal , S.M. Jajere , A.M. Bello , M. Mustapha , Y. Wakil , J.J. Ndahi , F.B. Mustapha , B.T. Paul , I.A. Gulani , U.I Ibrahim , Y.A. Geidam , A.G. Ambali and I. Waziri
  A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to March 2014 to determine the prevalence of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) in 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Gombe State, Northeastern Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was employed in the selection of 3 districts within each of these LGAs and 10 households within each selected district with moderate number of village chicken growers within the age range of 12-16 weeks old were selected. A total of 1500 cloacal samples comprising 651 males and 849 females were collected and tested for IBD antibodies using Rapid IBD Antigen Detection Test Kits (RADTK). Of this, 953 (63.5%; 95% CI: 61.06-65.94) were positive for the disease. A high prevalence of 84.4% (95% CI: 81.8-87.0) was obtained during the rainy season as compared with 40.3% (95% CI: 36.8-43.8) in the dry season (p<0.05). Males had a slightly higher prevalence of 59.9% (95% CI: 56.1-63.7) as compared with the female birds 52.2% (95%CI: 48.8-55.6) (p>0.05). Based on the LGAs, the prevalence ranges from 69.3% (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 0.10-2.80) in Gombe to 61.0% in Funakaye LGA (p>0.05). Urban region had high prevalence of 37.6% (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.79-3.41) as compared with 26.3% in the rural areas (p<0.001). It was concluded that IBD is endemic in Gombe State particularly within the urban city. Therefore, appropriate control and preventive measures were highlighted to mitigate the resultant economic losses to the backyard poultry farmers and halt further escalation of the disease.
  Y.A. Geidam , U.I. Ibrahim , H.A. Grema , K.A. Sanda , A. Suleiman and D.L. Mohzo
  Antibiotics are still deemed necessary for the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in farm animals intended for food production and to protect public health from food-borne diseases. One possible approach to the resistance problem is the appropriate use of antibiotics for prevention and treatment of infections. A survey was conducted to determine the antibiotic usage in poultry farms and the brand of antibiotics sold over the counter in drug outlets. Reputable poultry farms and drug outlets were identified and questionnaires were administered to 20 poultry farmers. A yes or no type of response was developed to assess level of reported purchase and use of antibiotics without prescriptions. Majority of the respondents (80%) agreed to have purchased an antibiotic without a prescription and the most commonly named antibiotics used by poultry farmers was Tetracycline (Oxytetracycline) 36.5%. It was available in all the drug stores (100%) visited. This was followed by amino glycosides (Neomycin) with 15.2% in poultry farms and 27.2% in drug stores. The widespread access to antibiotics without prescription with resultant inappropriate use, may lead to increased development of resistant strains.
  Y.A. Geidam , A.G. Ambali and P.A. Onyeyili
  The leaves of Psidium guajava is used in folk medicine as an antidiarrhoic in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. It is also employed for the treatment of vertigo and regulation of menstrual periods. World health organization encourages and indicated that studies on medicinal plants should include both identification of chemical constituents and determination of the biological activities of such plants. In this preliminary study, phytochemical and antibacterial properties of crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf were evaluated. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical screening for identification of various classes of active chemical constituents while disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial properties of the extract against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The extract inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but has no effect on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus fecalis organisms. The study revealed some antibacterial properties of the extract that justify the use of the plant in folk medicine. However, further studies need to be carried out to identify the potentials of the plant to be considered as a natural source of antibacterial agent.
  Y.A. Geidam , H. Usman , M.B. Abubakar and B. Ibrahim
  Plants are used widely in the tropics and sub-tropical Africa and Asia for the treatment and cure of various illnesses such as malaria, diarrhoea, burns, gonorrhoea, stomach disorders and other infectious diseases; among which are livestock and poultry related diseases. Present studies on the preliminary phytochemical composition of the leaf of this plant revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phenols lectins, triterpenes and carotenoids among others. Studies on the swab content from the navel of the day old chicks of both strains (broilers and layers) had revealed the presence of several gram positive and gram negative organisms such as E. coli, Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp. and Corynaebacterium. The susceptibility tests on the isolated organisms by the extract under study had showed an appreciable dose dependant zone of inhibition ranging from 13-25 mm. The activity of the extract (400 mg mL-1) can be favourably compared with that of the standard antibiotic-Oxytetracycline (10 mg mL-1) particularly between the E. coli and Streptococcus with 25:30 mm and 20:22 mm as inhibition zone respectively where no significant difference was observed. The extract exhibited a highest MIC of 12.5 mg mL-1 against Staphylococcus sp., while concentration of 25.0 mg mL-1 was noted as the MIC values against both E. coli and Streptococcus sp.
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