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Articles by Y. Liu
Total Records ( 24 ) for Y. Liu
  Y. Liu , S. Q. Li , S. J. Yang , W. Hu and X. P. Chen
  Carbon dioxide flux from the soil to the atmosphere is an important component of terrestrial C cycling, and accurate estimates of CO2-C fluxes are crucial for estimating C budgets. A field study was conducted (i) to examine the diurnal and seasonal soil CO2 flux pattern in spring maize fields on the Loess Plateau, and (ii) to determine the effects of soil characteristics affected by various cultivation practices on CO2 flux from the soil surface to the atmosphere. Soil surface CO2 flux was determined with an LI-8100 Automated Soil Flux System, and related environmental factors were also measured, including near-ground air temperature and relative humidity, soil moisture (0-15 cm), soil temperature (at depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm), and leaf area index. Diurnal soil CO2 flux showed a single peak between 12-00 h and 16-00 h, and reached a minimum in the early morning, at about 4-00 h. During the crop's growing season, soil CO2 flux increased during the rapid vegetative growth stages, reached its maximum during the peak reproductive stages, and then declined as the plants senesced. Time series analysis showed that the temporal dynamics of the CO2 flux were more closely related to air temperature than to soil temperature; this may be because a substantial portion of the CO2 originated from surface residues. The time-averaged mean soil CO2 flux for different cultivation practices over the growing season was ranked as follows: plastic film mulching (3.980 µmol m-2s-1) > corn straw mulching (3.464 µmol m-2s-1) > supplementary irrigating (3.157 µmol m-2s-1) > rain-fed (2.371 µmol m-2s-1) > bare ground (1.934 µmol m-2s-1). Different cultivation practices affected plant and microbial activities, and soil hydrothermal conditions, and caused different patterns of soil surface CO2 flux in spring maize fields on the Loess Plateau.
  H Fu , Z Hu , J Wen , K Wang and Y. Liu

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in actin cytoskeleton reorganization and tumor progression. Fascin1, an actin-binding protein, increases cell invasiveness and motility in various transformed cells. To determine whether fascin1 is an important mediator of the tumor response to TGF-β, we applied the small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique to silence fascin1 in gastric cancer (GC) cells MKN45. Results showed that the effects of TGF-β1 on GC cells invasion and metastasis were mediated by tumor production of fascin1; furthermore, it was found that TGF-β1-induced fascin1 expression was suppressed by the specific inhibitors of JNK and ERK pathways, SP6001125 and PD98059, respectively, but not by transient transfection of Smad2 and Smad4 siRNA. Our data for the first time demonstrated that fascin1 is an important mediator of TGF-β1-induced invasion and metastasis of GC cells, which involves JNK and ERK signaling pathways.

  Y. Yan , J. Huang , B. Chen , Y. Liu and C. Tan
  Radio bursts with fine structures in decimetric-centimetric wave range are generally believed to manifest the primary energy release process during flare/CME events. By spectropolarimeters in 1-2 GHz, 2.6-3.8 GHz, and 5.2-7.6 GHz at NAOC/Huairou with very high temporal (1.25-8 ms) and spectral (4-20 MHz) resolutions, the zebra patterns, spikes, and new types of radio fine structures with mixed frequency drift features are observed during several significant flare/CME events. In this paper we will discuss the occurrence of radio fine structures during the impulsive phase of flares and/or CME initiations, which may be connected to the magnetic reconnection processes.
  Y. Liu , X.X. Pan , G.H. Li , X. Liu and L.X. Jiang
  Based on the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method, the network coefficients of thermal network model describing the radiation heat transfer among satellite surfaces is solved by considering the surface material optical characters. It is superiority to the conventional Gebhart’s method in view of the grey body and the diffuse reflection assumptions. The zone leveling method is used to discrete the governing equations and the solar absorpivity is separated and considered to be an important correction parameter. Effects of the solar incidence round angle, the zenith angle and the ratio of absorpivity to emissivity (RAE) on temperature distribution are numerically simulated and discussed in detail. The higher or the lower the RAE may be lead to the alternative heating and cooling tend with a larger heating or cooling velocity of main body surfaces than the solar array surfaces. Furthermore, maximum temperature of main body is almost larger than solar arrays. Under the same RAE, solar incidence angle make a great effect on the uniform character of temperature distribution.
  J. LING , L. FENG , Y. LIU , J. JIANG , W.-D. JIANG , K. HU , S.-H. LI and X.-Q. ZHOU
  A 60-day feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of iron on growth, body composition and digestive enzyme activities. Diets with seven levels of iron (53.9, 90.0, 115.6, 146.1, 176.0, 215.8 and 266.0 mg iron kg−1 diet) were fed to Jian carp (initial weight 11.4 ± 0.0 g). Per cent weight gain (PWG), feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio were the lowest in fish fed the basal diet (P < 0.05). Body protein content was increased with the increasing iron levels (P < 0.05), but moisture, lipid and ash of fish were not significantly affected by dietary iron levels (> 0.05). Activities of trypsin, lipase, α-amylase, Na+, K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were improved with increasing dietary iron levels. Serum iron were significantly enhanced with dietary iron levels up to 146.1 mg iron kg−1 diet, and plateaued. In conclusion, iron improved digestive enzyme activities of juvenile Jian carp and the dietary iron requirement for serum iron of juvenile Jian carp (11.4–64.0 g) was 147.4 mg iron kg−1 diet with ferrous fumarate as the iron source.
  L. FENG , H.H. HUANG , Y. LIU , J. JIANG , W.D. JIANG , K. HU , S.H. LI and X.Q. ZHOU
  This study was to investigate the effect of dietary thiamin on the immune response and intestinal microflora in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Seven diets (0.25, 0.48, 0.79, 1.06, 1.37, 1.63 and 2.65 mg thiamin kg−1) were fed to Jian carp (8.20 ± 0.02 g). At the end of feeding trial, red blood cell counts and white blood cell counts increased with increasing dietary thiamin levels up to 0.79 and 1.06 mg kg−1 diet, respectively (< 0.05); Lactobacillus counts in intestine increased gradually, and maximum values obtained when the thiamin level was at 0.79 mg kg−1 diet (< 0.05). After the feeding trial, fish were injected with Aeromonas hydrophila only one time on the first day of the challenge trial and fed the same diets as the growth trial for 17 days. The survival rate, leucocyte phagocytic activity, lectin potency, acid phosphatase activity, lysozyme activity, total iron-binding capacity and immunoglobulin M content of fish after being injected with A. hydrophila were all improved with increasing dietary thiamin levels up to a point, respectively (< 0.05). These results suggested that thiamin could improve immune response and the balance of intestinal microflora of juvenile Jian carp.
  L. FENG , W.W. XIAO , Y. LIU , J. JIANG , K. HU , W.D. JIANG , S.H. LI and X.Q. ZHOU
  Oxidative damage and antioxidant status of intestine and hepatopancreas for juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) fed graded levels of methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA: 0, 5.1, 7.6, 10.2, 12.7, 15.3 g kg−1 diet) for 60 days were studied. Radical scavenging ability, antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reducase (GR), as well as glutathione (GSH), protein carbonyl (PC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were assayed in these tissues. Results indicated that anti-superoxide anion capacity in intestine and anti-hydroxyl radical capacity in hepatopancreas significantly improved with dietary MHA levels up to 7.6 and 10.2 g kg−1 diet respectively, whereupon they decreased (< 0.05). SOD, CAT, GST, GPX, GR activities in intestine and hepatopancreas, as well as GSH content in hepatopancreas significantly increased with optimal MHA levels which were in the range of 5.1−10.2 g kg−1 diet, and thereafter decreased (< 0.05). Meanwhile, MDA and PC contents in these tissues together with GOT and GPT activities in plasma significantly decreased with optimal MHA levels which were in the range of 5.1−7.6 g kg−1 diet, and thereafter increased (< 0.05). These results suggested that MHA improved antioxidant status and depressed lipid and protein oxidation in intestine and hepatopancreas.
  N.B. XIE , L. FENG , Y. LIU , J. JIANG , W.D. JIANG , K. HU , S.H. LI and X.Q. ZHOU
  A 9-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) to study the effects of dietary phosphorus on growth, body composition, intestinal enzyme activities and microflora. Quadruple groups of juvenile Jian carp (7.17 ± 0.01 g) were fed practical diets containing available phosphorus 1.7 (unsupplemented control), 3.6, 5.5, 7.3, 9.2 and 11.0 g kg−1 diet to satiation. Feed intake, specific growth ratio and feed efficiency were the lowest in fish fed the basal diet (< 0.05). Body moisture, protein, lipid content and ash were all significantly affected by dietary available phosphorus levels (< 0.05). Activities of trypsin, amylase, Na+, K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were improved with increasing dietary phosphorus levels. Intestinal Aeromonas and Escherichia coli decreased with increasing dietary phosphorus up to 3.6 and 5.5 g kg−1 diet respectively (< 0.05), while Lactobacillus increased with the increasing dietary phosphorus up to 9.2 g kg−1 diet (< 0.05). These results suggested that phosphorus could enhance intestinal enzyme activities of juvenile Jian carp and the minimum dietary available phosphorus requirement for SGR of juvenile Jian carp (7.2−63.8 g) was 5.2 g kg−1 diet.
  Y. Liu , X. Lu , J.G. Xu , Z.Q. Weng , W.X. Fu , Y.R. Luo , X.Y. Niu and Q. Zhang
  Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) plays a crucial role in virus-induced activation of interferon-alpha/beta transcription and innate immunity. In order to evaluate its effect on cytokine traits in pig, IRF7 gene was chosen as a candidate gene to investigate in pig populations. SNP was identified by sequencing and PCR-RFLP method. Cytokine traits including IFN-γ and IL10 concentration in serum were measured when pigs were at the age of 20 and 35 days, respectively. The further association analysis between SNP genotypes and cytokine traits were conducted in three breeds including Large White, Landraces and Songliao Black, the later one is Chinese indigenous breed. The results indicated that the SNP of IRF7 gene had a highly significant effect on the level of IL10 (day 20) (p = 0.047), IFN-γ (day 35) in serum (p = 0.031) and the ratio of IFN-γ to IL10 (day 35) in serum (p = 0.035). The study suggested that IRF7 gene could be regarded as a molecular marker gene for genetic selection of cytokine traits in the further disease resistance breeding.
  X.R. Wang , Y. Liu , L.P. Zhang , X.J. Wang and J.P. Wu
  The epidural retia mirabile is an arterial network formed by many of anastomotic branches from adjacent arteries for supplying blood to the brain in artiodactyla and plays a vital role in regulating cerebral blood flow. The purpose of this work was to compare anatomical differences of the epidural retia mirabile between the yak and cattle and to analyse their blood supply characteristics and provide a morphological basis for further research on the plateau adaptability of the yak. The vascular casts of the epidural retia mirabile were yielded on head specimens of 12 yaks (obtained from Qinghai China) and 10 cattle (obtained in Gansu China) by the corrosion casting technique. Their morphological features and arterial diameters were compared and analyzed using the methods of comparative anatomy. The general arrangements of the epidural retia mirabile in the yak were similar to that seen in cattle and mainly composed of the anterior portion, posterior portion, basi-occipital arterial plexus and anterior V-shaped extension. Middle width of the anterior epidural retia mirabile was more extensive and the posterior joint section was more developed and there were more abundant anterior anastomotic branches and communicating rami in the epidural retia mirabile of the yak. Moreover, the distribution ratios of blood flow from the maxillary artery entering the anterior epidural retia mirabile were 33.12% and 30.42% in the yak and in cattle, respectively. Our results indicated that the yak has more developed epidural retia mirabile. Its anatomical peculiarity perhaps is an adaptive characteristic of supplying blood system to the brain and which would help to buffer and regulate cerebral blood flow better so as to meet the cerebral oxygen demand of the yak in plateau areas.
  P Bachman and Y. Liu

Motivation: The large, complex networks of interactions between proteins provide a lens through which one can examine the structure and function of biological systems. Previous analyses of these continually growing networks have primarily followed either of two approaches: large-scale statistical analysis of holistic network properties, or small-scale analysis of local topological features. Meanwhile, investigation of meso-scale network structure (above that of individual functional modules, while maintaining the significance of individual proteins) has been hindered by the computational complexity of structural search in networks. Examining protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks at the meso-scale may provide insights into the presence and form of relationships between individual protein complexes and functional modules.

Results: In this article, we present an efficient algorithm for performing sub-graph isomorphism queries on a network and show its computational advantage over previous methods. We also present a novel application of this form of topological search which permits analysis of a network's structure at a scale between that of individual functional modules and that of network-wide properties. This analysis provides support for the presence of hierarchical modularity in the PPI network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  M. Mastorikou , B. Mackness , Y. Liu and M. Mackness

Aims  High-density lipoprotein (HDL) protects against atherosclerosis development. Defective functioning of HDL in Type 2 diabetes may be one cause of increased cardiovascular disease associated with Type 2 diabetes. HDL modulates low-density lipoprotein and cell membrane oxidation through the action of paraoxonase-1 (PON1), which is one of the major mechanisms by which HDL is anti-atherogenic.

Methods  We have compared the ability of HDL from Type 2 diabetic patients without coronary heart disease (CHD) (n = 36) to metabolize membrane lipid hydroperoxides with HDL from healthy control subjects (n = 19) and people with CHD but no diabetes (n = 37).

Results  HDL from subjects with Type 2 diabetes and CHD metabolized 20% less membrane hydroperoxides than HDL from control subjects (P < 0.05). The PON1-192RR was least efficient in all the study groups. PON1 was glycated in vivo: (7.5% control, 12% CHD, 17% Type 2 diabetes P < 0.01) with QQ isoforms most glycated. In vitro glycation of PON1 reduced its ability to metabolize membrane hydroperoxides by 50% (P < 0.001); however, glyoxidation reduced it by 80% (P < 0.001). In the control group only there was a significant negative correlation between PON1 activity and the ability of HDL to metabolize membrane hydroperoxides (r = −0.911, P < 0.001).

Conclusions  HDL from Type 2 diabetic patients without CHD has decreased ability to metabolize membrane lipid hydroperoxides, which could lead to increased susceptibility to cardiovascular disease.

  Q. Wan , F. Wang , Q. Guan , Y. Liu , C. Wang , L. Feng , L. Feng , L. Gao and J. Zhao
  Aims Lipotoxicity has recently been shown to be an important risk factor underlying the pathogenesis of pre-diabetes. However, clinical evidence supporting the treatment of pre-diabetes by improving lipotoxicity is lacking. Here, we conducted an open-label, randomized, controlled trial to investigate whether fenofibrate, the widely used hypolipidaemic agent, might benefit pre-diabetes, with metfomin and diet control, the recommended intervention methods, as positive controls. Methods Newly diagnosed pre-diabetes patients (n = 120) with hypertriglyceridaemia (plasma triglyceride levels between 1.8 and 4.5 mmol/l) were randomly assigned by computer-generated randomization sequence to either control group (no intervention), fenofibrate group (200 mg once a day), metformin group (500 mg three times a day) or diet-controlled group (diet recommendation). Plasma biochemistry examination was performed every 2 months. The primary endpoint was the outcome of the natural course of pre-diabetes, evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test after 6-month follow-up. Results Twenty subjects in the fenofibrate group, 24 subjects in the metformin group and 25 subjects in both the diet-controlled group and the control group finished the trial. Fenofibrate, metformin and diet control had protective effects on hypertriglyceridaemic pre-diabetes, evidenced by 53.3, 70 and 30% participants regressed to normoglycaemia, respectively. The effects of fenofibrate and metformin were comparable (P > 0.05), while diet control was less effective (P < 0.05). Liver damage occurred in six subjects in the fenofibrate group and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in four subjects in the metformin group. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion Controlling lipotoxicity by fenofibrate could effectively ameliorate the natural course of hypertriglyceridaemic pre-diabetes.
  M. Y. Kan , D. Z. Zhou , D. Zhang , Z. Zhang , Z. Chen , Y. F. Yang , X. Z. Guo , H. Xu , L. He and Y. Liu
  Aims  To investigate the two variants (rs1387153 and rs10830963) near/in the melatonin receptor 1B gene (MTNR1B) and to determine their association with Type 2 diabetes, as well as with the regulation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in Han Chinese subjects.

Methods  The two variants were genotyped in 1912 unrelated Type 2 diabetic patients and 2041 healthy individuals. Association with Type 2 diabetes was calculated by logistic regression with adjustments for sex, age and body mass index. The possible connection between the risk alleles and FPG was analysed by multiple linear regression.

Results  The two polymorphisms were associated with FPG levels in the healthy individuals (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively), and the G allele of rs10830963 was also associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes in our patient sample (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.23; P = 0.024). Moreover, the linkage disequilibrium degree of two single nucleotide polymorphisms was high (r2 = 0.66), which is similar to that of Europeans.

Conclusions  The common variant in MTNR1B confers the risk of Type 2 diabetes and modulates FPG in both the Han Chinese and European populations.

  Y. Liu , Y.-M. Yang , J. Zhu , H.-Q. Tan , Y. Liang and J.-D. Li
  Aims  To assess the prognostic impact of HbA1c and blood glucose level in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and without diabetes. The relationship between HbA1c and acute hyperglycaemia was also explored.

Methods and results  We evaluated 4793 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients with baseline HbA1c and three glucose measurements in the first 24 h. First, patients were stratified into quintiles by HbA1c and mean/admission glucose level. A total of 373 deaths (7.8%) occurred at 7 days, and 486 deaths (10.1%) occurred at 30 days. There were no significant differences in 7- and 30-day mortality, and major adverse cardiovascular event rates across HbA1c quintiles (< 34.4 mmol/mol (5.3% ), 34.4 to < 37.7 mmol/mol (5.6%), 37.7 to < 41.0 mmol/mol (5.9% ), 41.0 to < 47.5 mmol/mol (6.5%), and ≥ 47.5 mmol/mol; P for trend > 0.05). The risks of mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events were significantly increased in patients with higher glucose quintiles and lower quintile compared with the middle quintile after multivariable adjustment (P < 0.001). Patients were then reclassified into four groups according to mean/admission glucose and HbA1c levels. The group with elevated glucose and non-elevated HbA1c was associated with the highest mortality and major adverse cardiovascular event risk (P < 0.001).

Conclusions  Unlike acute hyperglycaemia, an elevated HbA1c level was not a risk factor for short-term outcomes in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients without diabetes. Patients with acute hyperglycaemia and non-elevated HbA1c were associated with the worst prognosis. That suggests chronic glycaemic control/HbA1c level may help to recognize stress-induced hyperglycaemia and identify high-risk patients.

  W. Gu , Y. Huang , Y. Zhang , J. Hong , Y. Liu , W. Zhan , G. Ning and W. Wang


To compare the carotid intima-media thickness in patients with newly diagnosed Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes ranging from 14 to 30 years of age.


Demographic, anthropometric and laboratory data were obtained from 404 adolescents and young adults (103 subjects with Type 1 diabetes, 94 with Type 2 diabetes, 153 obese subjects and 54 normal control subjects). Carotid intima-media thickness was assessed based on Doppler ultrasound examination and compared among the four groups.


Our data showed significant increases in carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes and obese subjects compared with the control subjects, with those in the group with Type 2 diabetes demonstrating the greatest change (P < 0.001). Age, BMI, percentage of fat, waist-hip ratio and total triglycerides were significantly correlated with both common and internal carotid intima-media thickness segments. From a stepwise multiple linear regression model, the independent determinants of common carotid intima-media thickness were age, BMI, HbA1c and HDL cholesterol (adjusted R2 = 0.152, P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, sex and HbA1c, the odds ratio for increased carotid intima-media thickness was 1.67 (95% CI 1.19-2.33, P = 0.003) for obese subjects, 2.38 (95% CI 1.59-9.47, P = 0.001) for subjects with Type 1 diabetes and 3.93 (95% CI 1.90-6.07, P = 0001) for subjects with Type 2 diabetes compared with the control subjects.


Compared with young control subjects, we found significant increases in carotid intima-media thickness in patients with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes, with patients with Type 2 diabetes showing greater carotid intima-media thickness. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and hyperglycaemia, could cause vessel changes even in adolescents and young adults.

  S. Liao , J. Mei , W. Song , Y. Liu , Y.-D. Tan , S. Chi , P. Li , X. Chen and S. Deng


The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) proposed that a one-time value of fasting plasma glucose of 5.1 mmol/l or over at any time of the pregnancy is sufficient to diagnose gestational diabetes. We evaluated the repercussions of the application of this threshold in pregnant Han Chinese women.


This is a retrospective study of 5360 (72.3% of total) consecutively recruited pregnant Han Chinese women in one centre from 2008 to 2011. These women underwent a two-step gestational diabetes diagnostic protocol according to the previous American Diabetes Association criteria. The IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion was used to reclassify these 5360 women. The prevalence, clinical characteristics and obstetric outcomes were compared among the women classified as having gestational diabetes by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria (approximately 90% were treated), those reclassified as having gestational diabetes by the single IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion (untreated), but not as having gestational diabetes by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria, and those with normal glucose tolerance.


There were 626 cases of gestational diabetes defined by the previous American Diabetes Association criteria (11.7%) and these cases were associated with increased risks of maternal and neonatal outcomes when compared with the women with normal glucose tolerance. With the IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion, another 1314 (24.5%) women were reclassified as having gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes classified by the IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion was associated with gestational hypertension (P = 0.0094) and neonatal admission to nursery (= 0.035) prior to adjustment for maternal age and BMI, but was no longer a predictor for adverse pregnancy outcomes after adjustment.


The simple IADPSG fasting plasma glucose criterion increased the Chinese population with gestational diabetes by 200%. The increased population with gestational diabetes was not significantly associated with excess obstetric and neonatal morbidity.

  J. Yan , Y. Liu , B. Zhou and M. Sun


To assess pre-hospital patient delay and its associated variables in patients with diabetic foot problems.


We classified 270 patients with diabetic foot problems retrospectively based on the distribution of pre-hospital delay. Clinical, demographic and socio-economic data were collected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine independent associations with patient delay.


The median pre-hospital delay time was 46.49 days. Patients reported short (≤ 1 week; 77 patients, 28.5%), moderate (> 1 week and ≤ 1 month; 106 patients, 39.3%) and long delays (> 1 month; 87 patients, 32.2%). In a univariate analysis, nine variables were associated with a longer delay (P < 0.05): (1) no previous ulcer; (2) no health insurance; (3) poor housing conditions; (4) low income level; (5) low educational level; (6) infrequent foot inspection; (7) few follow-up medical visits; (8) absence of diabetic foot education; (9) lack of knowledge of foot lesion warning signals. A multivariate analysis showed that absence of diabetic foot education (odds ratio 2.70, 95% CI 1.03-7.06, P = 0.043) and lack of knowledge of foot lesion warning signals (odds ratio 2.14, 95% CI 1.16-3.94, P = 0.015) were independent predictors of long patient delay. Long delay increased the risk of amputation (odds ratio 2.22, 95% CI 1.36-3.64, P = 0.002) and mortality (odds ratio 2.69, 95% CI 1.35-5.33, P = 0.005).


A number of factors were involved in pre-hospital delay among patients with diabetic foot problems and contributed to poor outcomes. We recommend developing a community intervention programme that targets at-risk communities to encourage earlier multidisciplinary team assessment to reduce disparities and improve foot outcomes in patients with diabetes.

  Y. Liu , X. Lu , Y.R. Luo , J.P. Zhou , X.Y. Liu , Q. Zhang and Z.J. Yin
  In this study, IRF1 gene was chosen as a candidate gene to evaluate its effect on porcine cytokine traits in serum. A SNP in exon2 was demonstrated by sequencing and PCR-RFLP analysis. Cytokine traits include IFN-γ and IL10 concentrations in serum were measured when the pigs were at 20 and 35 days of age, respectively. The further association analysis between SNP genotype and cytokine traits were conducted in three pig breeds including Large White, Landraces and Songliao Black pig, one Chinese indigenous breed. The results indicated that the SNP of IRF1 gene had highly significant effect on level of IFN-γ (day 20; day 35) in serum (p = 0.0001; p = 0.0001) and ratio of IFN-γ to IL10 (day 35) in serum (p = 0.0083). The study suggested that the IRF1 gene could be regarded as a molecular marker gene for genetic selection of cytokine traits in the further disease resistance breeding.
  Y. Liu , Y.R. Luo , X. Lu , X.T. Qiu , W.X. Fu , J.P. Zhou , X.Y. Liu , Q. Zhang and Z.J. Yin
  In this study, haematological traits, lysozyme concentration and T lymphocyte subpopulation as markers of innate immunity were detected and compared among Landrace, Large White and a chinese indigenous breed, Songliao Black pig. The animals were of the same age and kept under the same environmental conditions to reduce non-genetic variation in immune traits; they were all apparently healthy and were vaccinated by CSF live vaccine at 21 days of age. Except LY%, MO%, CD4CD8% and RDW, the other detected immune traits were significant difference between before (20 days) and after vaccination (35 day). While the values of MCV, MCH, MCHC, MO%, CD4+CD8+% and CD4+CD8+/CD4CD8+ values decreased after vaccination, the others increased. The values of WBC, GR, LY, MO, CD4+CD8% and CD4+CD8+% were significant difference among Large White, Landrace and Songliao Black pig (p<0.05). Our analysis confirms that Songliao Black pig has better innate immune level than Landrace and Large White. The animal resource population was suggested to be appropriate to investigate further the QTL and genes contributing to differences on these innate immune traits in pigs.
  G.S. Hu , G.B. Chang , Y. Zhang , J. Hong , Y. Liu and G.H. Chen
  The present research was to study the association of polymorphism of Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein1 (Nramp1) with some immune functions in Rugao chicken (RG) and Recessive White chicken (RW). The PCR-SSCP technique was applied to analyze the correlation between the polymorphisms of Nramp1 gene and immune functions (Heterophil/Lymphocyte (H/L), lymphocyte transformation rate and the content of IgM) in 72 RG and 55 RW. The results showed that: the Heterophil/Lymphocyte (H/L), lymphocyte transformation rate and the content of IgM in RG and RW showed significant differences (p<0.05). H/L of AA was significantly lower than BB and AB while the AA’s lymphocyte transformation rate and IgM were significantly higher than the BB’s in both RG and RW. The results demonstrated that the general immune performances of RG were superior to those of RW. The general immune performances of AA were superior to BB and AB.
  X.R. Wang , Y. Liu , T.F. Guo and J.P. Wu
  Anatomic characteristics of the cardiovascular system can reflect different supplying blood ability to tissues and organs. The Cerebral Arterial System mainly contributes to supplying blood to the brain tissue. In present study, researchers examined the morphological features and internal diameters of arteries and analyzed supplying blood ability of the Cerebral Arterial System of the yak and Chinese cattle with the Corrosion Casting technique and the methods of comparative anatomy. Results showed that general arrangements and calibers of most arteries of the Cerebral Arterial System between two species were similar but the anterior-posterior diameter of the cerebral arterial circle was shorter and interval distance of the cerebral carotid artery was closer in the yak. The yak has more developed internal arterial vessels and epidural retia mirabile and the blood volume of the Cerebral Arterial System in the yak showed anatomical superiority. Researchers deduced that the anatomic peculiarities of the cerebral arterial circle and relatively developed internal arterial vessels in the yak were beneficial to supplying more blood to the brain. The yak’s developed epidural retia mirabile was advantageous of the blood preservation, exchange and complement and it might play a vital role in buffering and regulating cerebral blood flow so as to meet demand of the yak’s brain for blood supply in the plateau areas.
  Y. Liu , W. Jiang , S. Li , Z.P. Cheng , D. Song , X.J. Zhang and F.S. Li
  Novel Fe3O4/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposites were prepared by a polyol-medium solvothermal method using oleate as an interlinker molecule and characterized via X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibration sample magnetometry. Results indicated that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were successfully attached on the surface of CNTs and the nanocomposites were proved to be superparamagnetic with saturation magnetization of 50.0 emu g−1. A proposed formation mechanism of the magnetic nanocomposites was presented.
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