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Articles by Y. M Chang
Total Records ( 2 ) for Y. M Chang
  Y. m Chang , J. H Barrett , B. K Armstrong , W Bergman , M Berwick , P. M Bracci , M. S Ernstoff , P. A Kanetsky , R. M Mackie , A Osterlind , T. R Rebbeck , V Siskind , A. J Swerdlow and M. S Zens

Background Melanoma risk is related to sun exposure; we have investigated risk variation by tumour site and latitude.

Methods We performed a pooled analysis of 15 case–control studies (5700 melanoma cases and 7216 controls), correlating patterns of sun exposure, sunburn and solar keratoses (three studies) with melanoma risk. Pooled odds ratios (pORs) and 95% Bayesian confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Bayesian unconditional polytomous logistic random-coefficients models.

Results Recreational sun exposure was a risk factor for melanoma on the trunk (pOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.2) and limbs (pOR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1–1.7), but not head and neck (pOR = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.8–1.4), across latitudes. Occupational sun exposure was associated with risk of melanoma on the head and neck at low latitudes (pOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0–3.0). Total sun exposure was associated with increased risk of melanoma on the limbs at low latitudes (pOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.2), but not at other body sites or other latitudes. The pORs for sunburn in childhood were 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3–1.7), 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3–1.7) and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1–1.7) for melanoma on the trunk, limbs, and head and neck, respectively, showing little variation across latitudes. The presence of head and neck solar keratoses was associated with increased risk of melanoma on the head and neck (pOR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.7–9.1) and limbs (pOR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.9–8.4).

Conclusion Melanoma risk at different body sites is associated with different amounts and patterns of sun exposure. Recreational sun exposure and sunburn are strong predictors of melanoma at all latitudes, whereas measures of occupational and total sun exposure appear to predict melanoma predominately at low latitudes.

  M. J Xie , Y. G Ma , F Gao , Y. G Bai , J. H Cheng , Y. M Chang , Z. B Yu and J. Ma

Cerebral arterial remodeling is one of the critical factors in the occurrence of postspaceflight orthostatic intolerance. We hypothesize that large-conductance calcium-activated K+ (BKCa) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) may play an important role in regulating cerebrovascular adaptation during microgravity exposure. The aim of this work was to investigate whether activation of BKCa channels is involved in regulation of apoptotic remodeling of cerebral arteries in simulated microgravity rats. In animal studies, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 1-wk hindlimb unweighting to simulate microgravity. Alterations of BKCa channels in cerebral VSMCs were investigated by patch clamp and Western blotting; apoptosis was assessed by electron microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL). To evaluate the correlation of BKCa channel and apoptosis, channel protein and cell nucleus were double-stained. In cell studies, hSlo+β1 channel was coexpressed into human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells to observe the effects of BKCa channels on apoptosis. In rats, enhanced activities and expression of BKCa channels were found to be correlated with increased apoptosis in cerebral VSMCs after simulated microgravity. In transfected HEK293 cells, activation of cloned BKCa channel induced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of cloned BKCa channel decreased apoptosis. In conclusion, activation of BKCa channels is associated with increased apoptosis in cerebral VSMCs of simulated microgravity rats.

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