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Articles by Y. H Kim
Total Records ( 13 ) for Y. H Kim
  J. Y Cho , H. S Han , Y. S Yoon , K. S Ahn , Y. H Kim and K. H. Lee

Objective  To determine the feasibility of the laparoscopic approach for treating suspected early-stage gallbladder carcinoma.

Design, Setting, and Patients  Prospective study from a university hospital. From May 10, 2004, to October 9, 2007, the laparoscopic approach was considered for treating 36 patients with suspected gallbladder carcinoma at T2 or less without liver invasion based on the preoperative computed tomographic scan. To further exclude liver invasion, preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography (US) and laparoscopic US were additionally performed. Frozen biopsy was performed after completing the cholecystectomy. If carcinoma was found, laparoscopic lymphadenectomy was performed.

Main Outcome Measures  Feasibility and operative outcome.

Results  Three patients who had liver invasion on endoscopic US underwent open surgery. An additional 3 patients who had liver invasion noted on laparoscopic US had their surgical procedure converted to laparotomy. Finally, 30 patients underwent a laparoscopic procedure. With combined computed tomography, endoscopic US, and laparoscopic US, the negative predictive value for excluding hepatic invasion reached 100%. For the 12 patients who had benign lesions noted on their frozen biopsies, their laparoscopic surgical procedure was completed. The remaining 18 patients who had gallbladder carcinoma underwent additional laparoscopic lymphadenectomy. During laparoscopic lymphadenectomy 1 conversion occurred owing to bleeding, the median operative time was 190 minutes, and the median blood loss was 50 mL. The complication rate was 16.7% and the median postoperative hospital stay was 4 days. After a median follow-up of 27 months, all 18 patients who underwent laparoscopic lymphadenectomy survived without any evidence of recurrence or metastasis.

Conclusion  Laparoscopic treatment is feasible and safe in selected patients with early-stage gallbladder carcinoma.

  D. W Park , S. C Yun , J. Y Lee , W. J Kim , S. J Kang , S. W Lee , Y. H Kim , C. W Lee , J. J Kim , S. W Park and S. J. Park

Background— Although C-reactive protein (CRP) has been proposed as a useful biomarker for predicting atherothrombosis, the association between CRP and stent thrombosis after drug-eluting stent implantation has not been defined.

Methods and Results— We prospectively evaluated 2691 patients treated with drug-eluting stents who had a baseline CRP measurement. The primary outcome was stent thrombosis; secondary outcomes were death, myocardial infarction (MI), death or MI, and target vessel revascularization. During follow-up (median, 3.9 years), 32 patients had definite or probable stent thrombosis, 137 patients died, 227 had an MI, and 195 underwent target vessel revascularization. In multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models, elevated levels of CRP were significantly associated with increased risk of stent thrombosis (hazard ratio, 3.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.82 to 8.18; P<0.001). Elevated CRP levels also significantly predicted the risks of death (hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 2.28; P=0.008), MI (hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 2.12; P=0.001), and death or MI (hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 2.00; P<0.001) but not target vessel revascularization (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.61; P=0.21). The incorporation of CRP into a model with patient, lesion, and procedural factors resulted in a significant increase in the C statistic for the prediction of stent thrombosis, MI, and the composite of death or MI.

Conclusions— Elevated CRP levels were significantly associated with increased risks of stent thrombosis, death, and MI in patients receiving drug-eluting stents, suggesting the usefulness of inflammatory risk assessment with CRP. Given the relatively infrequent occurrence of stent thrombosis, death, and MI, larger studies with longer-term follow-up are required to confirm the novel relationship.

  R Cappato , H Calkins , S. A Chen , W Davies , Y Iesaka , J Kalman , Y. H Kim , G Klein , A Natale , D Packer , A Skanes , F Ambrogi and E. Biganzoli

Background— The purpose of this study was to provide an updated worldwide report on the methods, efficacy, and safety of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF).

Methods and Results— A questionnaire with 46 questions was sent to 521 centers from 24 countries in 4 continents. Complete interviews were collected from 182 centers, of which 85 reported to have performed 20 825 catheter ablation procedures on 16 309 patients with AF between 2003 and 2006. The median number of procedures per center was 245 (range, 2 to 2715). All centers included paroxysmal AF, 85.9% also included persistent and 47.1% also included long-lasting AF. Carto-guided left atrial circumferential ablation (48.2% of patients) and Lasso-guided ostial electric disconnection (27.4%) were the most commonly used techniques. Efficacy data were analyzed with centers representing the unit of analysis. Of 16 309 patients with full disclosure of outcome data, 10 488 (median, 70.0%; interquartile range, 57.7% to 75.4%) became asymptomatic without antiarrhythmic drugs and another 2047 (10.0%; 0.5% to 17.1%) became asymptomatic in the presence of previously ineffective antiarrhythmic drugs over 18 (range, 3 to 24) months of follow-up. Success rates free of antiarrhythmic drugs and overall success rates were significantly larger in 9590 patients with paroxysmal AF (74.9% and 83.2%) than in 2800 patients with persistent AF (64.8% and 75.0%) and 1108 patients with long-lasting AF (63.1% and 72.3%) (P<0.0001). Major complications were reported in 741 patients (4.5%).

Conclusions— When analyzed in a large number of electrophysiology laboratories worldwide, catheter ablation of AF shows to be effective in 80% of patients after 1.3 procedures per patient, with 70% of them not requiring further antiarrhythmic drugs during intermediate follow-up.

  S. J Park , Y. H Kim , D. W Park , S. W Lee , W. J Kim , J Suh , S. C Yun , C. W Lee , M. K Hong , J. H Lee , S. W Park and for the MAIN COMPARE Investigators

Background— Although intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance has been useful in stenting for unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis, its impact on long-term mortality is still unclear.

Methods and Results— In the MAIN-COMPARE registry, patients with unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis in a hemodynamically stable condition underwent elective stenting under the guidance of IVUS (756 patients) or conventional angiography (219 patients). Patients with acute myocardial infarction were excluded. The 3-year outcomes between the 2 groups were primarily compared using propensity-score matching in the entire and separate populations according to stent type. In 201 matched pairs of the overall population, there was a tendency of lower risk of 3-year morality with IVUS guidance compared with angiography guidance (6.0% versus 13.6%, log-rank P=0.063; hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.28 to 1.03; Cox-model P=0.061). In particular, in 145 matched pairs of patients receiving drug-eluting stent, the 3-year incidence of mortality was lower with IVUS guidance as compared with angiography guidance (4.7% versus 16.0%, log-rank P=0.048; hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.02; Cox model P=0.055). In contrast, the use of IVUS guidance did not reduce the risk of mortality in 47 matched pairs of patients receiving bare-metal stent (8.6% versus 10.8%, log-rank P=0.35; hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.18 to 1.91; Cox model P=0.38). The risk of myocardial infarction or target vessel revascularization was not associated with the use of IVUS guidance.

Conclusions— Elective stenting with IVUS guidance, especially in the placement of drug-eluting stent, may reduce the long-term mortality rate for unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis when compared with conventional angiography guidance.

  S. Y Min , D. W Park , S. C Yun , Y. H Kim , J. Y Lee , S. J Kang , S. W Lee , C. W Lee , J. J Kim , S. W Park and S. J. Park

Background— The clinical characteristics that identify high-risk subsets of patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have not been well established.

Methods and Results— Between January 2000 and June 2006, 2240 patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease underwent PCI (n=1102) or CABG (n=1138). Twenty-six preprocedural parameters were evaluated by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis to identify independent predictors of all-cause mortality and target-vessel revascularization. Interaction tests were performed to compare heterogeneities of effects of preprocedural parameters depending on the revascularization methods. During follow-up (median of 3.1 years), 187 patients died (78 PCI and 109 CABG) and 149 patients had target-vessel revascularization (121 PCI and 28 CABG). EuroSCORE ≥6 was an independent predictor of death in both groups. Additional independent predictors were chronic renal failure and previous congestive heart failure in the PCI group and age ≥75 years, atrial fibrillation, right coronary artery disease, and left main distal bifurcation disease in the CABG group. Interaction analysis showed no heterogeneities of the effects of variables depending on the revascularization methods. Independent predictors of target-vessel revascularization were acute coronary syndrome and left main distal bifurcation disease in the PCI group and history of coronary intervention in the CABG group. The interaction between previous PCI and treatment remained after adjustment for all independent predictors of target-vessel revascularization (interaction P=0.0345).

Conclusions— Several clinical characteristics were identified as important preprocedural predictors of long-term adverse outcomes after percutaneous or surgical revascularization in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease.

  S. J Kang , G. S Mintz , D. W Park , S. W Lee , Y. H Kim , C. W Lee , K. H Han , J. J Kim , S. W Park and S. J. Park

The long-term natural history of acquired malapposition continues to be the subject of debate.

Methods and Results—

Using volumetric intravascular ultrasound analyses, we evaluated serial (poststenting, 6-month, and 2-year follow-up) changes in drug-eluting stent–treated vascular segments with acquired malapposition. External elastic membrane, stent, lumen, malapposition, and peristent plaque+media (P+M=external elastic membrane –stent– malapposition) areas were measured; and volumes were calculated and divided by stent length (normalized volume). Among 250 lesions in which complete serial intravascular ultrasound data were available, stent malapposition was identified in 19 lesions (7.6%) at 6 months, and an additional 13 malapposition lesions were newly detected at 2 years (5.2%). Because no malapposition sites resolved, the malapposition rate at 2 years was 12.8%. Malapposition areas and volumes were correlated to the increases in external elastic membrane (positive remodeling) throughout the study period, from immediately after stenting to 6 months and from 6 months to 2 years, both in the group that developed malapposition at 6 months and in the group that developed malapposition at 2 years. Clinical follow-up beyond the 2 year intravascular ultrasound study was done in all patients. Overall, there were 2 cardiac deaths and 1 noncardiac death. Two patients presented with acute myocardial infarction associated with very late stent thrombosis (1 definite stent thrombosis, 1 probable stent thrombosis). Three patients underwent repeat revascularization owing to in-stent restenosis developed after the 2-year follow-up.


Expansive vascular remodeling may play a role in the development and dynamic progression of acquired drug-eluting stent malapposition, not only during the first 6 months after implantation but thereafter.

  C Ausch , Y. H Kim , K. D Tsuchiya , S Dzieciatkowski , M. K Washington , C Paraskeva , J Radich and W. M. Grady

Background: Aberrantly methylated genes are promising biomarkers for the detection of colon adenomas and colorectal cancers (CRCs). The optimal assay type and specific methylated genes for these assays remain to be determined.

Methods: We used genomewide microarray-based assays to identify methylated genes as candidate biomarkers for colon neoplasms. The frequency of aberrant methylation of these genes in primary tumors was assessed with methylation-specific PCR (MSP). The limits of detection and specificities for different types of PCR-based assays were then assessed with the most promising genes identified in this screen. Finally, we assessed the best-performing MSP assay as an early-detection marker using fecal DNA samples.

Results: ITGA4 [integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)] was identified as a novel gene frequently methylated in CRC. Methylated ITGA4 is present in 75% of colon adenomas (n = 36) and 92% of colon adenocarcinomas (n = 75). Comparison of end point MSP, end point MSP with clamped primers, and quantitative fluorescent MSP (qMSP) approaches revealed that both types of end point MSP assays could routinely detect as little as 70 pg DNA, whereas the qMSP assay could routinely detect as little as 7 pg. A fecal DNA qMSP assay for methylated ITGA4 can detect 69% of individuals with colon adenomas (n = 13) with a diagnostic specificity of 79% (n = 28).

Conclusions: Methylated ITGA4 is a promising marker gene for the early detection of colonic neoplasms. qMSP has the lowest limit of detection of the MSP assay types tested, and a qMSP assay that detects methylated ITGA4 has potential as an early-detection assay for colon neoplasms.

  Y Itoh , K Replogle , Y. H Kim , J Wade , D. F Clayton and A. P. Arnold

We compared global patterns of gene expression between two bird species, the chicken and zebra finch, with regard to sex bias of autosomal versus Z chromosome genes, dosage compensation, and evolution of sex bias. Both species appear to lack a Z chromosome–wide mechanism of dosage compensation, because both have a similar pattern of significantly higher expression of Z genes in males relative to females. Unlike the chicken Z chromosome, which has female-specific expression of the noncoding RNA MHM (male hypermethylated) and acetylation of histone 4 lysine 16 (H4K16) near MHM, the zebra finch Z chromosome appears to lack the MHM sequence and acetylation of H4K16. The zebra finch also does not show the reduced male-to-female (M:F) ratio of gene expression near MHM similar to that found in the chicken. Although the M:F ratios of Z chromosome gene expression are similar across tissues and ages within each species, they differ between the two species. Z genes showing the greatest species difference in M:F ratio were concentrated near the MHM region of the chicken Z chromosome. This study shows that the zebra finch differs from the chicken because it lacks a specialized region of greater dosage compensation along the Z chromosome, and shows other differences in sex bias. These patterns suggest that different avian taxa may have evolved specific compensatory mechanisms.

  Y. H Kim , K Kubota , K Goto , K Yoh , S Niho , H Ohmatsu , N Saijo and Y. Nishiwaki

The aim of this study was to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and the recommended dose of combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine (GEM) and carboplatin (CBDCA) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with a performance status (PS) of 2.


Chemotherapy-naïve NSCLC patients with PS 2 were enrolled. Chemotherapy consisted of an escalated dose of GEM on days 1 and 8 and CBDCA on day 1 every 3 weeks. Patients were scheduled to receive GEM (mg/m2)/CBDCA (area under the curve: AUC) at four dose levels: 800/4 (level 1), 1000/4 (level 2), 1000/4.5 (level 3) and 1000/5 (level 4), respectively.


Between February 2004 and August 2006, 13 patients were enrolled in this study. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were thrombocytopenia, febrile neutropenia and hyponatremia. DLTs were observed in two of six patients at dose level 1 and in three of six patients at dose level 2. Dose level 2 was thus determined to be the MTD. Among 12 evaluable patients, 7 patients had stable diseases and 5 patients had progressive diseases, and the median survival time was 3.8 months.


The MTD and the recommended dose for Phase II studies of this regimen were determined to be GEM 1000 mg/m2 and CBDCA AUC of 4. Additional objective measures are needed to evaluate patients’ risk and benefit in future clinical trials for PS 2 patients.

  K Masago , S Fujita , K Irisa , Y. H Kim , M Ichikawa , T Mio and M. Mishima

Recently, two small-molecule kinase inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor have proven effective in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. There are specific activating mutations within the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor related to the sensitivity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, it is unknown whether rare mutations in the N-lobe (exons 18–20) and the C-lobe (exon 21) of the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain other than L858R in exon 21 and the in-frame deletion in exon 19 may predict the effectiveness of epidermal growth factor receptor—tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We reported a case of non-small cell lung cancer harboring a rare epidermal growth factor somatic mutation, codon 768 AGC > ATC in exon 20 (S768I), who showed a good clinical response to gefitinib. Therefore, we may suggest that this rare mutation (S768I in exon 20) may not be an insensitive epidermal growth factor receptor somatic mutation in vivo.

  H. Y Seo , J. M Park , K. H Park , S. J Kim , S. C Oh , B. S Kim , Y. H Kim and J. S. Kim

Angiogenesis is one of the crucial steps in various solid tumor growth and metastasis. However, there are limited data regarding the clinical and prognostic significance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels per platelet count in unresectable advanced gastric cancer compared with early gastric cancer and healthy volunteers.


A total of 181 gastric cancer patients were included and control serum samples were acquired from 113 healthy volunteers. The levels of serum vascular endothelial growth factor were measured using human vascular endothelial growth factor quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method and survival comparisons were made by the log-rank test in metastatic gastric cancer.


There was a significant correlation between serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels and differentiation of tumor (P = 0.014), stage (P = 0.036). The overall survival (P = 0.0432) and the progression-free survival (P = 0.0116) were significantly shorter in patients with high serum vascular endothelial growth factor per platelet count (≥1.626 pg/106). In the multivariate analysis, the presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis (P = 0.039), serum vascular endothelial growth factor per platelet (P = 0.005) were found to be significantly associated with poor progression-free survival.


This study demonstrates that serum vascular endothelial growth factor per platelet count is correlated with poor overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer.

  G. H Kim , K Park , S. Y Yeom , K. J Lee , G Kim , J Ko , D. K Rhee , Y. H Kim , H. K Lee , H. W Kim , G. T Oh , K. U Lee , J. W Lee and S. W. Kim

Activating signal cointegrator-2 (ASC-2) functions as a transcriptional coactivator of many nuclear receptors and also plays important roles in the physiology of the liver and pancreas by interacting with liver X receptors (LXRs), which antagonize the development of atherosclerosis. This study was undertaken to establish the specific function of ASC-2 in macrophages and atherogenesis. Intriguingly, ASC-2 was more highly expressed in macrophages than in the liver and pancreas. To inhibit LXR-specific activity of ASC-2, we used DN2, which contains the C-terminal LXXLL motif of ASC-2 and thereby acts as an LXR-specific, dominant-negative mutant of ASC-2. In DN2-overexpressing transgenic macrophages, cellular cholesterol content was higher and cholesterol efflux lower than in control macrophages. DN2 reduced LXR ligand-dependent increases in the levels of ABCA1, ABCG1, and apolipoprotein E (apoE) transcripts as well as the activity of luciferase reporters driven by the LXR response elements (LXREs) of ABCA1, ABCG1, and apoE genes. These inhibitory effects of DN2 were reversed by overexpression of ASC-2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that ASC-2 was recruited to the LXREs of the ABCA1, ABCG1, and apoE genes in a ligand-dependent manner and that DN2 interfered with the recruitment of ASC-2 to these LXREs. Furthermore, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-null mice receiving bone marrow transplantation from DN2-transgenic mice showed accelerated atherogenesis when administered a high-fat diet. Taken together, these results indicate that suppression of the LXR-specific activity of ASC-2 results in both defective cholesterol metabolism in macrophages and accelerated atherogenesis, suggesting that ASC-2 is an antiatherogenic coactivator of LXRs in macrophages.

  J. S Lee , Y. H Kim , S. J Yoon and B. C. Kang

This study assessed the reference dose levels for dental panoramic radiography in Gwangju city, South Korea based on the dose width product (DWP) and compared them with those already established elsewhere. A total of 44 panoramic dental radiographic sets (36 digital and 8 analogue panoramic sets) in 41 dental clinics in Gwangju city were chosen. The third quartile DWP was determined from 429 surface dose measurements of the adult surface dose in panoramic dental radiography. The third quartile DWP for panoramic radiography was 60.1 mGy mm. The proposed DWP reference levels of 60.1 mGy mm were less than or equal to those previously reported in other countries, such as Italy and UK, and acceptable for panoramic radiography in Gwangju, South Korea.

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