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Articles by Y Lee
Total Records ( 4 ) for Y Lee
  M Balki , Y Lee , S Halpern and J. C. A. Carvalho

BACKGROUND: Prepuncture lumbar ultrasound scanning is a reliable tool to facilitate labor epidural needle placement in nonobese parturients. In this study, we assessed prepuncture lumbar ultrasound scanning as a tool for estimating the depth to the epidural space and determining the optimal insertion point in obese parturients.

METHODS: We studied 46 obese parturients, with prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2, requesting labor epidural analgesia. Ultrasound imaging was done by one of the investigators to identify the midline, the intervertebral space, and the distance from the skin to the epidural space (ultrasound depth, UD) at the level of L3–4. Subsequently, an anesthesiologist blinded to the UD located the epidural space through the predetermined insertion point and marked the actual distance from the skin to the epidural space (needle depth, ND) on the needle with a sterile marker. The agreement between the UD and the ND was calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient and a paired t-test. Bland-Altman analysis was used to determine the 95% limits of agreement between the UD and the ND.

RESULTS: The prepregnancy BMI ranged from 30 to 79 kg/m2, and the BMI at delivery was 33–86 kg/m2. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the UD and the ND was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.75–0.91), and the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.71–0.88). The mean (±sd) ND and UD were 6.6 ± 1.0 cm and 6.3 ± 0.8 cm, respectively (difference = 0.3 cm, P = 0.002). The 95% limits of agreement were 1.3 cm to –0.7 cm. Epidural needle placement using the predetermined insertion point was done without reinsertion at a different puncture site in 76.1% of parturients and without redirection in 67.4%.

CONCLUSIONS: We found a strong correlation between the ultrasound-estimated distance to the epidural space and the actual measured needle distance in obese parturients. We suggest that prepuncture lumbar ultrasound may be a useful guide to facilitate the placement of epidural needles in obese parturients.

  Y Lee , G Nachtrab , P. W Klinsawat , D Hami and K. D. Poss
  Yoonsung Lee, Gregory Nachtrab, Pai W. Klinsawat, Danyal Hami, and Kenneth D. Poss

Regenerative medicine for complex tissues like limbs will require the provision or activation of precursors for different cell types, in the correct number, and with the appropriate instructions. These strategies can be guided by what is learned from spectacular events of natural limb or fin regeneration in urodele amphibians and teleost fish. Following zebrafish fin amputation, melanocyte stripes faithfully regenerate in tandem with complex fin structures. Distinct populations of melanocyte precursors emerge and differentiate to pigment regenerating fins, yet the regulation of their proliferation and patterning is incompletely understood. Here, we found that transgenic increases in active Ras dose-dependently hyperpigmented regenerating zebrafish fins. Lineage tracing and marker analysis indicated that increases in active Ras stimulated the in situ amplification of undifferentiated melanocyte precursors expressing mitfa and kita. Active Ras also hyperpigmented early fin regenerates of kita mutants, which are normally devoid of primary regeneration melanocytes, suppressing defects in precursor function and survival. By contrast, this protocol had no noticeable impact on pigmentation by secondary regulatory melanocyte precursors in late-stage kita regenerates. Our results provide evidence that Ras activity levels control the repopulation and expansion of adult melanocyte precursors after tissue loss, enabling the recovery of patterned melanocyte stripes during zebrafish appendage regeneration.

  B Kim , Y Lee , Y Kim , K. H Lee , S Chun , K Rhee , J. T Seo , S. W Kim and J. S. Paick

DAZ is a male infertility gene located at the AZFc region of the Y chromosome. There are four copies of the DAZ gene that share a strong homology but are not identical to one another. In the present study, we carried out cDNA cloning and immunoblot analyses to determine whether all of the DAZ genes are actively expressed in the human testis.


AZFc deletion was detected by sequence-tagged site polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of genomic DNA isolated from blood samples. DAZ cDNAs were cloned with RT–PCR followed by sequence analysis. The expression of DAZ proteins in human testis was determined by immunoblot and compared with DAZ cDNA expression.


Immunoblot analysis revealed four DAZ protein bands in testis samples that showed no deletions in the AZFc region. No specific bands were observed in samples from AZFc deletion patients. Testis samples from individuals with the partial AZFc deletion, gr/gr, showed two DAZ-specific bands. Interestingly, the sizes of DAZ-specific bands varied among individuals. Analysis of DAZ transcripts in testis samples revealed that the DAZ proteins were translated from the largest of the multiple transcripts originating from each single DAZ gene.


All four DAZ genes are expressed in the human testis, and their products are highly polymorphic among men.

  M Kawachi , Y Kobae , H Mori , R Tomioka , Y Lee and M. Maeshima

A mutant line of Arabidopsis thaliana that lacks a vacuolar membrane Zn2+/H+ antiporter MTP1 is sensitive to zinc. We examined the physiological changes in this loss-of-function mutant under high-Zn conditions to gain an understanding of the mechanism of adaptation to Zn stress. When grown in excessive Zn and observed using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, wild-type roots were found to accumulate Zn in vacuolar-like organelles but mutant roots did not. The Zn content of mutant roots, determined by chemical analysis, was one-third that of wild-type roots grown in high-Zn medium. Severe inhibition of root growth was observed in mtp1-1 seedlings in 500 µM ZnSO4. Suppression of cell division and elonga-tion by excessive Zn was reversible and the cells resumed growth in normal medium. In mutant roots, a marked formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) appeared in the meristematic zone, where the MTP1 gene was highly expressed. Zn treatment enhanced the expression of several genes involved in Zn tolerance: namely, the plasma membrane Zn2+-export ATPase, HMA4, and plasma and vacuolar membrane proton pumps. CuZn-superoxide dismutases, involved in the detoxification of ROS, were also induced. The expression of plasma membrane Zn-uptake transporter, ZIP1, was suppressed. The up- or down-regulation of these genes might confer the resistance to Zn toxicity. These results indicate an essential role of MTP1 in detoxification of excessive Zn and provide novel information on the latent adaptation mechanism to Zn stress, which is hidden by MTP1.

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