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Articles by Xingming Sun
Total Records ( 28 ) for Xingming Sun
  Hong Wang , Xingming Sun , Yuling Liu and Yongping Liu
  In this study, a novel natural language watermarking scheme of Chinese texts based on syntactic transformations is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the so-called sentence weight defined in the study is used to carry the watermark bit. During the embedding process, the transformable sentences are first grouped and then their sequence is permuted to enhance the imperceptibility of watermark bit hiding positions. To improve watermarking reliability and capacity, error correcting coding is also applied.
  Yuling Liu , Xingming Sun , Yongping Liu and Chang-Tsun Li
  Communications via Microsoft Power Point (PPT for short) documents are commonplace, so it is crucial to take advantage of PPT documents for information security and digital forensics. In this study, we propose a new method of text steganography, called MIMIC-PPT, which combines text mimicking technique with characteristics of PPT documents. Firstly, a dictionary and some sentence templates are automatically created by parsing the body text of a PPT document. Then, cryptographic information is converted into innocuous sentences by using the dictionary and the sentence templates. Finally, the sentences are written into the note pages of the PPT document. With MIMIC-PPT, there is no need for the communication parties to share the dictionary and sentence templates while the efficiency and security are greatly improved.
  Gang Luo , Xingming Sun and Lingyun Xiang
  In this research, a steganographic algorithm based on the directed Hamiltonian path selection in the complete digraph mapped from multi-blogs with same article has been proposed. Firstly, we can regard n different blogs referring to a same article as n different virtual vertices and then connect them virtually to construct a complete digraph. As there exist n! different directed Hamiltonian paths at most in a complete digraph with n vertices, after numbering all directed Hamiltonian paths, a large number converted from arbitrary secret information smaller than n! can be expressed as a certain Hamiltonian path. In the process of the actual realization, the cited links of the same article are used to indicate the location of the former vertex of the current in a selected Hamiltonian path. In the information-extracting process, we can recover the whole Hamiltonian path by tracing the cited links and then decode this Hamiltonian path to retrieve the hidden information. Based on the theoretical analysis and the experimental proof, it demonstrates that the proposed steganography has good imperceptibility and security.
  Xiangrong Xiao , Xingming Sun , Xinbing Wang and Lei Rao
  In this study, we propose a non-cryptology and protocol-independent technique based on information hiding, called Data-Oriented Security Model (DOSM). Instead of one layer of protection, the proposed scheme offers two-fold protection against attack. An attacker first explores whether the data in question carries any useful information and then conducts extraction on it. Information is concealed by changing some properties of the data, which does not incur extra overheads to the sensor nodes. With the help of DOSM, each forwarding node can verify the embedded marks using the source node ID in each packet. This mechanism is used to filter data in a distributed manner. It can also avoid fake and tamper attacks by terminating bad packets as soon as they are detected. The data security is guaranteed by filtering the inconsistent packets between the hidden data and its source ID, which yields low energy consumption and high reliability. The simulation results show that the proposed DOSM protects the security of data communication and achieves data authentication invisibly at small overhead expense.
  Zhihua Xia , Xingming Sun , Jiaohua Qin and Changming Niu
  Learning-based methodology has been demonstrated to be an effective approach to dispose the steganalysis difficulties due to the variety of image texture. A crucial process of the learning-based steganalysis is to construct a low-dimensional feature set. In this study, a feature selection method based on Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (HGA) is presented to select feature subsets which not only contain fewer features, but also provide better detection performance for steganalysis. First, the general framework about utilizing Genetic Algorithm (GA) to do feature selection for steganalysis is presented. Then, we analyze similarity among individuals (SI) in each generation and the Transformation of Generations (TG) to determine whether the GA has converged into a local area. Next, according to the SI and TG, the restarting operation is incorporated into the HGA to allow the algorithm to escape from the unsatisfactory local area. In the experiments, three feature subsets are formed from a universal feature set for three typical steganography methods, respectively. The experimental results show that the classifiers using the feature subsets gain better detection accuracy and higher speed than those using the universal set.
  Xiaoliang Wang and Xingming Sun
  Anonymity has received increasing attention in the literature due to the users' awareness of their privacy nowadays. While, anonymity related issues have been extensively studied in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems, numerous concerns have been raised about the issue of providing authentic partners in P2P systems. In addition, the network authority requires controlled anonymity, so that misbehaving entities in the network remain traceable. We are working on seeking novel and more effective methods to control anonymity, authentication and traceability. In this study, we propose a security architecture to ensure anonymity and authentication for honest users and keep traceability for misbehaving users in P2P systems. We use Fair Blind Signature Trust (FBST) to resolve the conflicts among anonymity, authentication and traceability. Signature scheme that has information about identity ensures authentication. At the same time, use of blind signature and additional anonymous scheme provides anonymity. Moreover, traceability is achieved due to the fairness of fair blind signature. Security analysis shows that the FBST can perfectly solve tradeoff between anonymity, authentication and traceability.
  Jiaohua Qin , Xingming Sun , Xuyu Xiang and Zhihua Xia
  In this study, a new steganalytic method, which exploits the difference statistics of neighboring pixels, is proposed to detect the presence of spatial LSB matching steganography. In the proposed method, the differences between the neighboring pixels (DNPs), the differences between the local extrema (DLENs) and their neighbors in grayscale histogram are used as distinguishing features and the SVM is adopted to construct classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient to detect the LSB matching steganography for the compressed and uncompressed images and outperforms other recently proposed algorithms.
  Hengfu Yang , Xingming Sun and Guang Sun
  A novel semi-fragile watermarking scheme in image spatial domain is proposed. Each watermark bit is duplicated and embedded into sub-blocks of the host image by adaptive Least Significant Bit (LSB) substitution. The adaptive LSB substitution fully exploits the Human Visual System (HVS) masking characteristics, which ensures high visual quality of watermarked image. The watermark for authentication is extracted by taking a majority vote on the extracted bits. To differentiate attack types effectively, a classification rule for image authentication was developed. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has good transparency and robustness against admissible signal operations, while it is sensitive to malicious attacks such as heavy noise addition, rotation by large angle, cutting and pasting. In addition, the scheme can localize the tampered region precisely.
  Ahmed A. Abdulfetah , Xingming Sun , Hengfu Yang and Nur Mohammad
  In this study, two image adaptive invisible digital watermarking algorithms based on DWT and DCT are proposed for copyright protection. The first proposed algorithm utilizes Watson’s visual model (JND) to determine the watermarking strength necessary to invisibly embed the watermark in the DCT block coefficients of the cover image by controlling the power of strength of JND. The second proposed technique embeds the watermark by modifying coefficients of the vertical and the horizontal detail sub-bands of wavelet sub-blocks, chosen with a secret key. The visual model is designed to generate a Just Noticeable Difference mask (JND) by analyzing image characteristics such as textures and luminance of the cover image in the DWT based domain. Since, the secret key is required for both embedding and extraction of watermark, it is not possible for an unauthorized user to extract the embedded watermark. The proposed schemes are robust to common image processing distortions like filtering, JPEG compression and noise. Experimental results show that the proposed schemes are efficient, imperceptible and the quality of watermarked image is very well and robust for various image processing distortions.
  Guang Sun and Xingming Sun
  This study presented a method for constructing more accurate condensed co-change graph. By using random walk, all the unchanged artifacts can be merged completely on the condition that the changed artifacts greater than 50%. An extended GN clustering approach is applied to find a good partition of the software condensed co-change graph. The experiment compares the watermark extracting results embedding whole software and embedding the biggest cluster codes by SANDMARK with ten software techniques. The experiment results show that if an attacker copies the biggest cluster codes, only three software watermarking approaches can work. If the watermarks are embedded in the biggest cluster codes, seven watermarking techniques can work.
  Xiaoliang Wang , Lincong Yang , Xingming Sun , Jinsong Han , Wei Liang and Lihong Huang
  Anonymity has received increasing attention in the literature due to the users` awareness of their privacy nowadays. While anonymity related issues have been extensively studied in peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, numerous concerns have been raised about the issue of providing authentic partners in P2P systems. In addition, the network authority requires authentication so that misbehaving entities in the network remain traceable. This study analyzes this problem and reviews related researches. Besides, we also advise some possible methods for this problem.
  Zhijie Liu , Xingming Sun , Yuling Liu , Lincong Yang , Zhangjie Fu , Zhihua Xia and Wei Liang
  In some critical application areas, it is not allowed to modify the contents of the text, like military, legal and literature fields. Therefore, restoring the original contents of the text becomes a practical and important issue for text watermarking. This study aims to deal with this problem. We firstly present the concept of reversible text watermarking and then bring forth an effective scheme to achieve reversible text watermarking. Based on the synonym substitution method, the proposed algorithm applies an invertible transform to embed watermark, extract watermark and recover the original contents of the text. By using the reversible watermarking scheme, one can not only protect the interests of the author of the text, but also get the original contents of the text, if the receiver has the wish and right to revert the original contents of the text. Moreover, the scheme improves the payload capacity via using high embedding level, compressing the watermark or repeating the algorithm more than one time.
  Zhiqiang Ruan , Xingming Sun , Wei Liang , Decai Sun and Zhihua Xia
  In this study, we focus on design efficient security techniques to maximize chances of data survival in wireless sensor networks, which involve disconnected or unattended operation with periodic visited by the sink, we refer to such networks as UWSNs. Data security in such UWSNs poses a number of challenges when applied in security-sensitive environments. First, sensors must accumulate data for a long time until it can be off loaded to a periodic sink. The adversary has lots of time to mount various attacks that aim to learn, erase, or modify potentially valuable data collected and held by sensors. Second, there is no ever-present sink, thus real time detection dose not help and the adversary can reach its goal and remain undetected. To address these security problems, we present CADS, a novel Co-operative and Anti-fraud Data Storage scheme for UWSNs by integrating the techniques of secret sharing and Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP). We first propose a share generation and distributed scheme to achieve reliable and fault-tolerant initial data storage by providing redundancy for original data components, we then utilize discrete logarithm problem to ensure the integrity of the distributed data shares. The proposed scheme enables individual sensors to verify all the related data shares simultaneously in the absence of the original data in each round. Security analysis and simulations show that the proposed scheme has resistance against node capture attacks and outperforms existing security scheme in terms of data survival quantity and false negative probability.
  Heng Ren , Xingming Sun , Zhiqiang Ruan and Baowei Wang
  In this study, we aim to design an efficient scheme against node capture attacks using secure pairwise key in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Prior pairwise key establishment schemes based on random key pre-distribution are vulnerable to node capture attacks. In order to improve the resilience against node capture attacks, we are the first to present the Key Superset (KS) scheme. In this scheme, the entire sensor network is devided into several non-overlapping triangle cells and nodes are separated into groups, each of which is deployed in a cell and each pair of adjacent cells selects randomly a certain number of keys from the key subset which belongs to the key superset. By using deployment knowledge and KS scheme we can restrict the consequence of node capture attacks within a small range and establish pairwise key for each pair of neighboring cells efficiently. Compared to existing schemes, our proposal outperforms others in resilience against node capture attacks and achieves high local connectivity.
  Wei Liang , Xingming Sun , Zhiqiang Ruan and Jing Long
  A Finite State Machine (FSM)-based Intellectual Property (IP) watermark algorithm at behavioral level is presented for the protection of IP reuse techniques in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI). The proposed algorithm extracts the maximal delay state set through state transformation relations among circuit signals. The watermark is mapped into additional delay constraint sequence by constraint generator, and the value in the sequence is added into the maximal delay state set in the circuit for embedding watermark. The algorithm is tested on Virtex XCV600-6bg432 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), the experimental results show that the algorithms has lower impact on logical function, ensures better security and lower (resource) overhead in comparison with other methods.
  Bin Yang , Xingming Sun , Lingyun Xiang , Zhiqiang Ruan and Ruizhen Wu
  Most text steganographic methods are taken the formatted text documents, such as MS Word, PDF, PPT and etc., as cover carriers to hide secret information. This study concerns on the steganography in MS Excel document and proposes a new steganographic method hiding information efficiently by text-rotation technique. The proposed method is implemented by slightly rotating the angle of the text inside the cell to reduce the visible detection of the embedded information. Measuring the text angle of the cells retrieves the secret information. Experiments for different threshold in the algorithm are presented and the results show the proposed method not only has a good imperceptibility but also achieve high embedding rate while most of cells in Excel document are short in length.
  Baowei Wang , Xingming Sun , Zhiqiang Ruan and Heng Ren
  To achieve a more comprehensive and sustained privacy control and tamper detection for the data in wireless sensor networks, we propose a novel multiple watermarking method, called Multi-mark, which consists of an annotation part and a fragile part. On the one hand, encrypted user’s personal information is embedded into the routine monitoring data, as annotation watermark, which can be extracted when, needed. On the other hand, tampering is detected using fragile watermark. The former can resist various manipulative attacks, while the latter can detect any malicious modifications. Multi-mark not only provides privacy and security, but also saves data transmission amount and storage space. The experimental results show that Multi-mark can reduce 30% of data traffic and only introduces very low computation cost. Multi-mark is a network structure-free scheme, which can be easily and efficiently applied to the resource limited sensor networks.
  Lingyun Xiang , Xingming Sun , Yuling Liu and Hengfu Yang
  In this study, a novel secure steganographic method was proposed by taking advantage of Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs). Selecting a series of MCQs to automatically generate a stego text could conceal secret information. The proposed method could achieve a considerable embedding bit rate while being able to hide more information by reordering the options of the generated MCQs. The final outputting stego texts were kept the same linguistic and statistic characteristics as normal texts, thus the hidden information had good imperceptibility and could survive under potential steganalysis attacks, which was also demonstrated by experiments. More experimental results showed that the average embedding bit rate achieved more than 1 bit per sentence, which was superior to the bit rate of most existing linguistic steganographic methods.
  Zhiqiang Ruan and Xingming Sun
  This paper study the data delivery mechanisms that can with high probability thwarting node capture attacks in unattended or distributed wireless sensor networks. Classic cryptographic approaches are vulnerable to such attacks, mainly due to their deterministic nature. Because once the adversary compromises the sensor nodes, it can acquire the credential as well as the data collected and held by sensors. Furthermore, the adversary can easily insert bogus sensor readings or change the processing results and then use these keys to authenticate forged information. This study proposes and analyzes the application of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes to address the problem. In the proposed scheme, each sensor node encodes the original data into multiple redundancy data shares by applying predefined (n, k) RS codes and applies non-uniform allocation through multiple node-disjoint paths to the destination. Analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is efficient and resilient against node capture attack.
  Bin Xia , Xingming Sun , Lingyun Xiang , Haijun Luo and Hengfu Yang
  This study presented a method to detect Least Significant Bit (LSB) matching steganography in gray images based on the neighborhood node degree characteristic. Natural images have a strong correlation between adjacent pixels and it’s disturbed by LSB matching. Accordingly the effects of LSB matching steganography on neighborhood node degree were examined at first. Then features were extracted from neighborhood node degree histogram. A new calibration algorithm based on neighborhood node degree was proposed to get more effective features. Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used as classifier. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method was efficient to detect the LSB matching steganography and had superior results compared with other recently proposed algorithms on compressed images and low embedding rate uncompressed images.
  Lina Tan and Xingming Sun
  Digital forgery and tampering of text documents create an urgent need for content-based document authentication. Observe that main geometric features of characters would approximately stay invariant under small perturbations. A robust document authentication scheme is proposed using a skeleton-based text image hash function. The algorithm is aimed at producing sufficiently randomized outputs which are unpredictable, thereby yielding required properties of image hashing. In the verification stage, the deskewing mechanism base on Hough transform is used to compensate for the distortions induced by rotation or hardcopy operations. Experimental results show that this technique withstands standard benchmark (e.g., Stirmark) attacks, including compression, geometric distortions of scaling and small-angle rotation and common image processing operations. Content-based modifications of text data are also accurately detected.
  Decai Sun , Xingming Sun , Xiaoxia Wang and Zhiqiang Ruan
  Sequence alignment was one of the most popular operations in bioinformatics. The key issue of alignment was how to improve matching speed in a large sequences database. In this study, a full-sensitivity algorithm was proposed to solve the problem of finding all local alignments over a given length w with an error rate at most e. The proposed algorithm was implemented on a q-gram index. First, a large part of irrelevant subsequences were eliminated quickly by effective filtrating with new diagonal features. These new diagonal features were extracted from match-regions by analyzing the edit matrix of query sequence and database. Second, the unfiltered regions were verified by smith-waterman algorithm to search the true matches. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm improves the filtration efficiency in a short filtration time and the algorithm is always faster than the well-known SWIFT on condition of low max error rate. This result is of great practical to local alignment with low error rate and short window size.
  Nur Mohammad , Xingming Sun and Hengfu Yang
  The Development of modern communication technology, demand for digital image, audio, video and other contents transmission and storage are increasing rapidly. To protect digital product and ensure the secure transfer of the digital items become important issue in home and abroad. The researcher developed many algorithms; these are some specific fields. But can’t grantee the whole safety of the contents. The Block Truncation Coding one of the effective and real time application for the hiding data compare with transform domain and other techniques. In a coding technique, a number of bits required to represent an image which needs less data store and less computation. Application of coding in the field of image processing generally concern image data compression for storage and transmission as well as feature extraction for pattern recognition. Most existing BTC-based data hiding algorithms do not fully exploit visual perception of the host images and cannot obtain high hiding capacity and visual quality. For fully exploit visual perception and high hiding capacity, an excellent data hiding scheme based on BTC is proposed. First, the BTC scheme uses a two level (one-bit) nonparametric quantizer that adapts to local properties of the image. Second we employed Human Visual System (HVS) masking characteristics which ensure high visual quality of stego image. At the last, we embedded the data into the modified bitmap of BTC. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has good transparency, high hiding capacity and the visual quality of stego-images is very good.
  Bin Yang , Xingming Sun , Jianjun Zhang , Lingyun Xiang , Xianyi Chen and Xu Li
  In many critical application areas, such as military, legal and literature fields, methods of protecting copyright for text data could not cause any distortion in textual content. In this study, we evaluate a novel reversible (lossless) data hiding scheme for MS office 2007 document. The proposed scheme modifies the unnoticeable content and the synonyms of a document to hide information. While in extraction processing, the original content can be recovered without any distortion from the marked textual. Our scheme is achieved by using two common text information hiding methods simultaneously. The secret information is embedded into the cover document by synonym substitution. Original synonyms in the document are mapped into a compressed Synonym Index Table (SIT) and concealed into the MS office 2007 document. Experiments results demonstrated that proposed scheme can not only successfully embed and extract the secret information but also keep the original textual content undistorted.
  Xingming Sun , Shufang Wang , Zhihua Xia and Xinhui Wang
  The advances in digital media make the copyright protection more and more important. Digital watermarking provides a copyright protection solution to this problem. The text is the most popular medium over the internet and many researchers have proposed text watermarking methods in past years. In this study, we propose a new watermarking method based on skeleton algorithm for hiding messages in Chinese text image. In the embedding process, on the basis of character segmentation, the skeleton of each character is extracted and then the location of the bounding box of each skeleton is recorded. Secondly, in each text line, the average center line of the bounding boxes is calculated and the centers of character skeletons are shifted to a position higher or lower than the average center line. The shifting pattern constitutes the watermark. In the extracting process, we firstly conduct the binarization and deskewing operation to the printed-scanned image. Then the remaining phase is very similar to the embedding process. The experimental results prove that the proposed method can successfully resist the print and scan attack and holds much better robustness than that does not use skeleton algorithm.
  Nur Mohammad , Xingming Sun and Hengfu Yang
  The development of modern communication technology, demand for digital image, audio, video and other digital contents transmission and storage are increasing rapidly. To protect digital product and ensure the secure transfer of the digital content become important issue in every fields. The researcher developed many visible watermarking algorithms; these are some specific fields. But can’t applicable of the digital image perfectly. In this research, An Adaptive Visible Watermarking Algorithm for BTC compressed images presented. BTC one of the effective and real time application for the image compression compare with transform domain and other data hiding techniques. Existing BTC-based visible data hiding algorithms do not fully exploit visual perception of the host images. That is why cannot obtain high hiding capacity and high visual quality of watermarked-images and visible watermark images. To obtain high visual quality of watermarked images and good perceptual visible watermark image, an adaptive scaling factor and embedding factor calculated by exploiting luminance and texture masking characteristics of digital images. This study is useful for modern communication technology. An Adaptive Visible Watermarking Algorithm for BTC compressed images is presented in the paper. For the more, the experimental results proved that the algorithm adaptive visible hiding information capacity is very high. So, the visual quality of watermarked-images and visible watermark image is very good.
  Yi Zhu , Xingming Sun , Zhihua Xia , Li Chen , Tao Li and Daxing Zhang
  With the growing popularity of cloud computing, more and more users are willing to outsource their private data to the cloud. To ensure the security of data, data owners usually encrypted their private data before outsourcing them to the cloud server. Though data encryption improves the security of data, it increases the difficulty of data operating. This study focuses on the search of encrypted images in the cloud and proposes an efficient similarity retrieval scheme over encrypted images. The proposed scheme enables data owners to outsource their personal images and the content-based image retrieval service to the cloud without revealing the actual content of the image database to the cloud. The proposed scheme in this study supports the global feature based image retrieval methods under the Euclidean distance metric. Besides, rigorous security analysis and extensive experiments show that the proposed scheme is secure and efficient.
  Huan Liu , Baowei Wang , Xingming Sun , Tao Li , Qi Liu and Yunbiao Guo
  The technology of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has facilitated the meteorological parameter monitoring. To reduce the cost, most monitoring systems collect desired data through cheap, unprofessional meteorological equipments, so do our system. However, due to the low cost of equipments and the poor package, the data collected by unprofessional equipments is inaccurate. In this study, we propose a Data Correction Scheme for Cheap Sensor (DCSCS) to improve data accuracy. The Discrete Wavelet Transform algorithm is used to filter the collected data to clear the noise and find the data pattern. Then we use Back Propagation neural network to establish a data correction model. Finally, we use the model to correct the other data. Our experiment shows that the meteorological data corrected by our method performs a very good result both in maximum error, mean error and correlation coefficient.
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