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Articles by X. Zhang
Total Records ( 13 ) for X. Zhang
  X Gong , W Ye , H Zhou , X Ren , Z Li , W Zhou , J Wu , Y Gong , Q Ouyang , X Zhao and X. Zhang

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression may be induced during apoptosis in various cell types. Here, we used the C-terminal of AChE to screen the human fetal brain library and found that it interacted with Ran-binding protein in the microtubule-organizing center (RanBPM). This interaction was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation analysis. In HEK293T cells, RanBPM and AChE were heterogeneously expressed in the cisplatin-untreated cytoplasmic extracts and in the cisplatin-treated cytoplasmic or nuclear extracts. Our previous studies performed using morphologic methods have shown that AChE translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that RanBPM is an AChE-interacting protein that is translocated from the cytoplasm into the nucleus during apoptosis, similar to the translocation observed in case of AChE.

  X Ren , J Zhang , X Gong , X Niu , X Zhang , P Chen and X. Zhang

The kidney is formed from two tissue populations derived from the intermediate mesoderm, the ureteric bud, and the metanephric mesenchyme. Metanephric mesenchyme is a pluripotent renal stem population, and conversion of renal mesenchyme into epithelia depends on the ureteric bud in vivo and in vitro. Embryonic stem (ES) cells have been induced to differentiate into a broad spectrum of specialized cell types in vitro, including hematopoietic, pancreatic, and neuronal cells. Such ES-derived cells can provide a valuable source of progenitor cells. However, whether ES cells can be stimulated by factors secreted from the fetal renal cells to differentiate into renal precursor cells in vitro has not been reported. In this study, we showed that murine ES cells can give rise to embryoid bodies in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor. Culture conditions were optimized [6 days, 10 ng/ml activin and 10–7 M retinoic acid (RA)] to generate maximal mesoderm populations specifically expressing Pax2 and brachyury. Results showed that 72% of the cells were brachyury positive by fluorescent activated cell sorter on Day 6 of EB cell differentiation. Conditioned medium collected from cultures of ureteric bud cells from renal cells of a 13-day-old fetus was added to the culture medium. Mesoderm cells were cultured for up to 10 days before showing expression of renal markers, initiation of nephrogenesis (WT-1 and Pax2), and terminally differentiated renal cell types (POD-1 and E-cadherin). This study suggests that ES cells pre-treated by RA and activin can interact with secreted molecules of the fetal renal cells to specifically differentiate into renal precursor cells. Our results provide an experimental basis for the development of in vitro assays to steer differentiation of ES cells toward renal lineages.

  G. Y. Liu , S. Z. Gao , C. R. Ge and X. Zhang
  The cDNAs for Machado-Joseph disease protein 1 homolog (MJD1), cell division control protein 42 homolog precursor(CDC42) and necdin (NECD) genes of pig were amplified using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on the conserved coding sequence information of the MJD1, CDC42, and NECD genes from mouse and other mammals and the referenced porcine EST sequence information. Tissue expression analysis showed the swine MJD1, CDC42, and NECD genes were obviously differentially expressed in different tissues including muscle, heart, liver, backfat, kidney, lung, small intestine, and large intestine. Our experiment established the primary foundation for further research on these three swine genes.
  C. d’Andre Hirwa , W. Paul , W. Yan , C. Luo , Q. Nie , G. Yang and X. Zhang
  In this study, we describe the insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism of the THRSP gene evaluated using 1% agarose gel and 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a sample of (17 breeds of chicken including 3 foreign breeds and 14 chinese native breeds). For the THRSPα gene indel polymorphism result, allele frequencies varied, between chinese native chicken and a foreign chicken. A high frequency of allele B (0.91) and a low frequency of allele A (0.09) were observed in Leghorn chicken, which has been selected for laying performance. Based on variation in allele frequencies among populations, either the low frequency of allele A or the high frequency of allele B could be linked to fatness trait of the chicken. In conclusion, THRSPα gene might be used as a molecular marker in high quality broiler assistant selection breeding program.
  B. H Rovin and X. Zhang

Current treatment of severe lupus nephritis is unsatisfactory in terms of both outcome and toxicity. To improve the efficacy and decrease the adverse effects of immunosuppression, it would be ideal to be able to predict the course and pathology of lupus nephritis and adjust therapy appropriately. This will require biomarkers that reflect disease activity. Recently, significant effort has been put into identifying biomarkers that can anticipate impending lupus renal flare, forecast development of chronic kidney disease, or reflect kidney histology at the time of flare. Although these biomarkers are potentially useful, to date none has been clinically validated in a large, prospective cohort of patients with SLE. This article reviews the current status of lupus nephritis biomarker investigation and articulates a perspective of how future efforts should be focused.

  C. Li , L. Barker , E. S. Ford , X. Zhang , T. W. Strine and A. H. Mokdad
  Aims  Anxiety disorders may cause substantial impairment in patient functioning and well-being. Little is known about the relationship between diabetes and anxiety. We estimated the prevalence of lifetime diagnosis of anxiety in adults aged ≥ 18 years with and without diabetes in the USA.

Methods  We analysed data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (total, N = 201 575; 20 142 with diabetes; 39.4% men, 77.9% non-Hispanic Whites, 8.1% non-Hispanic Blacks and 7.7% Hispanics; mean age 52.4 years). Diabetes and lifetime diagnosis of anxiety were self-reported. A multivariable log-binomial model was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) of anxiety based on diabetes status.

Results  The overall age-adjusted prevalence of lifetime diagnosis of anxiety was 19.5 and 10.9% in people with and without diabetes, respectively. After adjustment for educational level, marital status, employment status, current smoking, leisure-time physical activity and body mass index, people with diabetes had a 20% higher prevalence of lifetime diagnosis of anxiety than those without (PR 1.20; 95% CI 1.12, 1.30). There were no significant differences in the PR by gender (P = 0.06). However, the ratios differed significantly by age (P = 0.04) and by race/ethnicity (P < 0.01), indicating that people aged 18−29 years (PR 1.70; 95% CI 1.19, 2.43) and Hispanics (PR 1.69; 95% CI 1.33, 2.15) had a higher ratio than their counterparts.

Conclusion  Diabetes was significantly associated with anxiety in adults in this large population-based sample, particularly in Hispanics and young adults.

  H. Zhu , X. Zhang , M.-Z. Li , J. Xie and X.-L. Yang


To determine the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes and their risk factors among overweight or obese school children aged 7-18 years in Tianjin, China.


A cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of overweight/obese children or adolescents in Tianjin was conducted from May to August 2010 using a stratified cluster sampling method. A two-step screening, which was conducted to identify Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in these children, consisted of a fasting capillary glucose test and a standard 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Subjects who had fasting capillary glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol/l were invited for an oral glucose tolerance test. The study used Chinese criteria for classification of obesity/overweight and World Health Organization criteria for diabetes/pre-diabetes.


A total of 3173 children participated in the survey, with a response rate of 99.0%. Of the children, 13.0% (n = 413) were overweight and 15.4% (n = 490) were obese. Among these 903 children, 727 (80.5%) agreed to and underwent the diabetes screening and two (0.28%) were diagnosed as having Type 2 diabetes, six (0.83%) to have impaired fasting glucose, 16 (2.20%) to have impaired glucose tolerance and two (0.28%) to have both. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes was 0.28% (95% CI 0.08-1.00%) and 3.30% (95% CI 2.23-4.87%), respectively. Abdominal obesity and motorized commuting were associated with Type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes among overweight or obese boys, while high birthweight was associated with Type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes among girls.


Type 2 diabetes among school-aged children was still low in Tianjin, China. However, Type 2 diabetes-related factors were very common, especially overweight and obesity.

  D Lu , S Fillet , C Meng , Y Alguel , P Kloppsteck , J Bergeron , T Krell , M. T Gallegos , J Ramos and X. Zhang

The majority of bacterial gene regulators bind as symmetric dimers to palindromic DNA operators of 12–20 base pairs (bp). Multimeric forms of proteins, including tetramers, are able to recognize longer operator sequences in a cooperative manner, although how this is achieved is not well understood due to the lack of complete structural information. Models, instead of structures, of complete tetrameric assembly on DNA exist in literature. Here we present the crystal structures of the multidrug-binding protein TtgV, a gene repressor that controls efflux pumps, alone and in complex with a 42-bp DNA operator containing two TtgV recognition sites at 2.9 Å and 3.4 Å resolution. These structures represent the first full-length functional tetrameric protein in complex with its intact DNA operator containing two continuous recognition sites. TtgV binds to its DNA operator as a highly asymmetric tetramer and induces considerable distortions in the DNA, resulting in a 60° bend. Upon binding to its operator, TtgV undergoes large conformational changes at the monomeric, dimeric, and tetrameric levels. The structures here reveal a general model for cooperative DNA binding of tetrameric gene regulators and provide a structural basis for a large body of biochemical data and a reinterpretation of previous models for tetrameric gene regulators derived from partial structural data.

  S Ju , Y Ge , H Qiu , B Lu , Y Qiu , J Fu , G Liu , Q Wang , Y Hu , Y Shu and X. Zhang

Dendritic cells (DCs) are responsible for the initiation of immune responses. Our study demonstrates a new pathway for generating a large quantity of stimulatory monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) from human monocytes using anti-4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) mAb to trigger reverse signaling. The anti-4-1BBL-driven Mo-DCs (DCs-4-1BBL) not only express higher levels of CD86, CD83 and HLA-DR, when compared with the Mo-DCs matured by tumor necrosis factor , but also exhibit a unique phenotype that expresses lower levels of PD-L1. High levels of GM-CSF, M-CSF and Flt3 ligand (FL) were found in the anti-4-1BBL-differentiation culture. Neutralizing M-CSF, GM-CSF and FL inhibited Mo-DC proliferation stimulated by anti-4-1BBL mAb, suggesting that M-CSF, GM-CSF and FL are involved in cell proliferation stimulated by anti-4-1BBL. Further analysis of the DCs-4-1BBL showed increased secretion of Th1-type cytokines IL-12 and IFN- and decreased secretion of IL-10. DCs-4-1BBL induced much stronger proliferative responses in the mixed lymphocyte reaction assay when compared with DCs derived by GM-CSF. Moreover, DCs-4-1BBL preferentially induced Th1 responses. We have further demonstrated that anti-4-1BBL antibody stimulated nuclear translocation of NF-B from the cytoplasm in monocytes, suggesting that reverse signaling by 4-1BBL is likely responsible for mediating DC differentiation. Collectively, we have found that reverse signaling of 4-1BBL promotes the differentiation of potent Th1-inducing DCs from human monocytes.

  Z.X. Cao , Z.H. Shi , Y. Zhang , Z. Chao , L.M. Wei , Q.W. Liu , X. Zhang , B.G. Ye , X.L. Zheng , F. Wang and Z.M. Lin
  Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is one of the most important swine pathogens of economic importance. To understand the genetic diversity of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in South China, 49 PCV2 sequences from South China were compared to 58 other references sequences. Researchers found that the nucleotide similarity among all South China isolates ranged from 93.7-100%. Most of them were classified into PCV2b-1A/1B cluster but the rest mapped to clusters PCV2b-1C, PCV2a-2E or PCV2a-2F. The data contribute to the understanding of molecular variation of PCV2 in South China.
  X. Zhang , X. Wang , B. Wang , T. Sugi and M. Nakamura
  The onset detection of muscle activation is an essential issue in electromyogram (EMG) control. In this paper, a novel approach based on EMG power with automatic adaptive threshold is proposed to address this issue. The purpose is to develop an effective EMG-controlled meal assistance robot. Taking into account the individual difference such as contraction power and resting power, the threshold of onset detection is set with respect to the latest EMG signal. The results show the method is able to adjust automatically to avoid false alarms, and works well when the contraction power varies. Implementation of this EMG-controlled meal assistance robot may provide limb-deficient patients with an effective and comfortable human-machine assistance interface.
  D. G Kimmel , W. C Boicourt , J. J Pierson , M. R Roman and X. Zhang

The biological response of mesozooplankton (250–2000 µm size range) to hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico was investigated using an optical plankton counter (OPC) and a high-capacity pump. We sampled the water column in an area with the most persistent occurrence of hypoxia every 4 h for a 24-h period in both years. The amount of hypoxic bottom water differed between 2006 and 2007, with 2006 having more widespread bottom hypoxia than 2007. Large-sized mesozooplankton (>1000 µm) were more abundant in 2006 and were found in greater abundance and biomass in hypoxic water. Small- (250–500 µm) and mid-sized (500–1000 µm) mesozooplankton showed diel variability, but did not appear to respond to hypoxia. The opposite pattern was observed in 2007, where smaller-sized mesozooplankton were dominant and diel variability in this size class was not detected, whereas large- and mid-sized mesozooplankton did show evidence of diel variability in 2007. Using a vital staining technique (neutral red), we found a significantly higher proportion of stained mesozooplankton in oxic, surface waters compared with deep, hypoxic waters. These findings show that mesozooplankton vertical and diel distributions differed between a year with widespread, bottom hypoxia and a year with a thin layer of hypoxic water. It remains unclear as to what is driving these size differences, the direct impact of hypoxia on mesozooplankton individual or egg mortality, differential predation in the water column or other factors such as more nutrient input related to increases in zooplankton production.

  A Lu , L Wang and X. Zhang

Objective: To study the association of haplotypes of IL-8 -251T/A and 781 C/T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the susceptibility of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

Methods: This study included 101 hospitalized patients under 2 years who suffered from RSV pneumonia and108 hospitalized patients under 2 years who suffered only from pneumonia without RSV infection. Genotypes of two SNP loci in all enrolled persons were defined by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. The allele’s frequencies of SNPs were analyzed with case–control study, linkage of two loci and haplotypes composed by the two loci were also studied.

Results: (i) The frequency of IL-8 -251T in cases was dramatically high (OR = 2.08, p = 0.0002). (ii) Haplotype of TC was significantly high in cases (p = 0.01).

Conclusion: These findings support that haplotype of TC composed by IL-8 -251T and 781C is associated with the susceptibility of RSV.

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