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Articles by Wei Huang
Total Records ( 14 ) for Wei Huang
  Signe Fransen , Gary Bridger , Jeannette M. Whitcomb , Jonathan Toma , Eric Stawiski , Neil Parkin , Christos J. Petropoulos and Wei Huang
  In a phase I/II evaluation of the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100, human immunodeficiency virus RNA levels were significantly reduced in a single study subject who harbored CXCR4 (X4)-tropic virus, but not in subjects who harbored either dual/mixed (DM)-tropic or CCR5 (R5)-tropic virus (C. W. Hendrix et al., J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 37:1253-1262, 2004). In this study, we analyzed the envelope clones of DM-tropic virus in baseline and treated virus populations from 14 subjects. Ten subjects exhibited significant reductions in CXCR4-mediated infectivity after 10 days of AMD3100 therapy relative to baseline (X4 suppressor group), while four subjects had no reduction of CXCR4-mediated infectivity (X4 nonsuppressor group). The baseline viruses of the X4 suppressor group infected CXCR4-expressing cells less efficiently than those of the X4 nonsuppressor group. Clonal analysis indicated that the baseline viruses from the X4 suppressor group contained a higher proportion of R5-tropic variants mixed with CXCR4-using variants, while the X4 nonsuppressor group was enriched for CXCR4-using variants. AMD3100 suppressed X4-tropic variants in all subjects studied, but not all dualtropic variants. Furthermore, dualtropic variants that used CXCR4 efficiently were suppressed by AMD3100, while dualtropic variants that used CXCR4 poorly were not. This study demonstrated that AMD3100 has the ability to suppress both X4-tropic and certain dualtropic variants in vivo. The suppression of CXCR4-using variants by AMD3100 is dependent on both the tropism composition of the virus population and the efficiency of CXCR4 usage of individual variants.
  Yunting Qiao , Wei Huang and Maoqiu Jian
  El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and local sea surface temperature (SST) have been regarded as the important factors influencing the precipitation, evaporation and circulation over the Asian-Australian monsoon (AAM) region. The moisture source is determined directly by precipitation and evaporation. This present paper studies the impacts of ENSO and local SST on moisture source in the AAM region during boreal summer. Relative roles of ENSO and local SST are also discussed by using the singular value decomposition (SVD) and conditional SVD (CSVD) methods. The authors identify one major coupled mode between the interannual variations of apparent moisture sink (<Q 2>) and SST for the period 1979–2008. Spatial structure of the major mode exhibits two key regions of moisture source, one over the western-central southern Indian Ocean (SIO) where <Q 2> is negative, and the other over the northwest and north side of Australia, where <Q 2> is positive. In the corresponding map of SST, negative values are also seen in the former region, but are positive in the latter region. The interannual variation of moisture source in the AAM region has an outstanding positive correlation with the local SST. Furthermore, ENSO also has a remarkable correlation with the principle component (PC) of the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of <Q 2>. ENSO and local SST work cooperatively to determine the variations of moisture source in the AAM region.
  Hongliang Liu , Guangfu Jin , Haifeng Wang , Wenting Wu , Yanhong Liu , Ji Qian , Weiwei Fan , Hongxia Ma , Ruifen Miao , Zhibin Hu , Weiwei Sun , Yi Wang , Li Jin , Qingyi Wei , Hongbing Shen , Wei Huang and Daru Lu
  Polymorphisms of the methyl-CpG binding domain 1 (MBD1) gene may influence MBD1 activity on gene expression profiles, thereby modulating individual susceptibility to lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the associations of four MBD1 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in a Chinese population. Single locus analysis revealed significant associations between two polymorphisms (rs125555 and rs140689) and lung cancer risk (p=0.011 and p=0.005, respectively). Since the two polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium, further haplotype analyses were performed and revealed a significant association with lung cancer (global test p-value=0.0041). Our results suggested that MBD1 polymorphisms might be involved in the development of lung cancer. Validation of these findings in larger studies of other populations is needed.
  Xunde Xian , Yahong Ma , Danhui D Yang , Wei Huang , Yuhui Wang , Odilo Mueller , Elain Chang , Yves Konigshofer , Mark Van-Cleve , Jinkui Yang and George Liu
  Background: Alterations in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions, especially in the HDL2b subfraction, have been reported in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, new methods for convenient and reliable quantitation of HDL2b are yet to be developed.
Methods: Thirty-eight patients with T2DM were enrolled and age-, sex- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls were selected from the same population. A microfluidic chip method was employed to analyse serum HDL subfractions.
Results: The microfluidic chip method revealed a significant reduction in HDL2b and its ratio to total HDL in T2DM patients. There was a reverse correlation for total HDL and HDL2b, and its ratio with triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment-insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-IS) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR).
Conclusions: We have shown a reduction of HDL2b and its ratio to total HDL by a novel chip method in T2DM patients. The significant correlation between HDL2b and HOMA-IS and HOMA-IR may have further predictive value in clinical utility.
  Juan Wang , Yan Yi , Baosheng Li , Zhongtang Wang , Hongfu Sun , Peiliang Zhang and Wei Huang
  The increasing panel of systemic therapies enables the individual management of lung cancer patients, even in advanced stages. However, predictive tools indicating the efficacy of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) are badly needed. Aims: To determine the tumour markers for predicting the therapeutic effect in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients treated with CRT. Methods: The serum levels of cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA21-1), neurone-specific enolase (NSE) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were measured before CRT by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while the tumour responses were assessed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) response criteria. The relationships between pretreatment expression of CYFRA21-1, NSE, CEA and the effectiveness of CRT were analysed. Results: The complete response (CR) rate of the primary tumours estimated by computed tomography in patients with high levels of CYFRA21-1 was 2.9% (2/68) while in cases with low CYFRA21-1 it was 20.3% (12/59) (p=0.005). The effective rates (CR+PR) in CYFRA21-1 high and low groups were 52.9% (36/68) and 72.9% (43/59), respectively (p=0.022). Conclusions: CYFRA21-1 may be a reliable surrogate marker of CRT efficacy in patients with NSCLC.
  Wei Huang and Bo Meng
  Secure remote internet voting protocols play an important role in electronic government. Owning to the huge damage and hard to prevention of denial of service attacks in security protocols, resistance of denial of service attacks occupy a tiny space and is intricate security requirements for remote voting protocols. Meng protocol is one of the most important remote internet voting protocols that claims to satisfy formal definitions of key properties. In this study firstly the review of the formal model of resistance of denial of service attacks in security protocol are introduced. Then extended applied pi calculus, the mechanized proof tool ProVerif and Huang’s formal model are examined. After that Meng protocol is modeled in extended applied pi calculus. Finally resistance of denial of service attacks is analyzed with ProVerif. The results we obtain are that Meng protocol is not resistance of denial of service attack because one denial of service attacks is found by us. At the same time we give the method against the denial of service attack. To our best knowledge we are conducting the first mechanized proof of resistance of denial of service attacks in Meng protocol for an unbounded number of honest and corrupted voters.
  Bo Meng , Wei Huang and Jun Qin
  Soundness and coercion resistance are the important and intricate security requirements for remote voting protocols. In this study firstly the review of the formal methods of security protocols is introduced, then applied pi calculus and the automatic tool ProVerif are examined. Thirdly Meng et al. protocol recently proposed is modeled in applied pi calculus. Finally soundness and coercion resistance are verified with automatic tool ProVerif. The result we obtain is that Meng et al. protocol has coercion resistance. But it has not soundness because ProVerif found an attack on soundness. Finally the improvement of Meng et al. protocol is proposed and also modeled in applied pi calculus and automatically analyzed in ProVerif. The result we get is that the improvement of protocol has soundness. To our best knowledge, the first automated analysis of Meng et al. protocol for an unbounded number of honest and corrupted voters is finished.
  Zhaolian Chu , Wei You , Ying Fan , Huifen Qian and Wei Huang
  Two d10 transition-metal complexes having racemic and enantiomeric 1,2,2-trimethylcyclopentane-1,3-diamine ligands, [Zn(La)2](NO3)2 · CH3CH2OH (1) and [Cd(Lb)2Cl](ClO4) (2) (La = D,L-1,2,2-trimethylcyclopentane-1,3-diamine, Lb = D-(+)-1,2,2-trimethylcyclopentane-1,3-diamine or (1R,3S)-1,2,2-trimethylcyclopentane-1,3-diamine), were synthesized and characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. They crystallize in the Pbca and P212121 space groups, respectively, and have different coordination numbers and coordination geometry (four-coordinate tetrahedron for Zn(II) in 1 and five-coordinate square-based pyramid for Cd(II) in 2) mainly due to their different ionic radii.
  Wei You , Wei Huang , Ying Fan and Cheng Yao
  The reaction between 4'-chloro-2,2' : 6',2''-terpyridine (tpyCl) with d10 transition-metal ions produced two cadmium(II) and two zinc(II) metal complexes, formulated as [Cd(tpyCl-κ3N,N',N'')(NO3-κ2O,O')(NO3-κO)(H2O-κO)] (1), [Cd(tpyCl-κ3N,N',N'')2](ClO4)2 (2), [Zn(tpyCl-κ3N,N',N'')2](ClO4)2 (3), and [Zn(tpyCl-κ3N,N',N'')2](BF4)2 (4). Supramolecular interactions include coordinative bonding, O-H ··· O, O-H ··· Cl, C-H ··· F, and C-H ··· Cl hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking, all of which play essential roles in forming different frameworks of 1-4.
  Wei Huang , Jonathan Toma , Signe Fransen , Eric Stawiski , Jacqueline D. Reeves , Jeannette M. Whitcomb , Neil Parkin and Christos J. Petropoulos
  Many studies have demonstrated that the third variable region (V3) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein (Env) is a major determinant of coreceptor tropism. Other regions in the surface gp120 subunit of Env can modulate coreceptor tropism in a manner that is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the effect of env determinants outside of V3 on coreceptor usage through the analysis of (i) patient-derived env clones that differ in coreceptor tropism, (ii) chimeric env sequences, and (iii) site-directed mutants. The introduction of distinct V3 sequences from CXCR4-using clones into an R5-tropic env backbone conferred the inefficient use of CXCR4 in some but not all cases. Conversely, in many cases, X4- and dual-tropic env backbones containing the V3 sequences of R5-tropic clones retained the ability to use CXCR4, suggesting that sequences outside of the V3 regions of these CXCR4-using clones were responsible for CXCR4 use. The determinants of CXCR4 use in a set of dual-tropic env sequences with V3 sequences identical to those of R5-tropic clones mapped to the gp41 transmembrane (TM) subunit. In one case, a single-amino-acid substitution in the fusion peptide of TM was able to confer CXCR4 use; however, TM substitutions associated with CXCR4 use varied among different env sequences. These results demonstrate that sequences in TM can modulate coreceptor specificity and that env sequences other than that of V3 may facilitate efficient CXCR4-mediated entry. We hypothesize that the latter plays an important role in the transition from CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor use.
  Wei Huang , Zhenyu Bian , Kexuan Li , Jiumei Xiao , Hui Cao and Huai Yang
  The preparation is reported of particles of photopolymerisable monomer/chiral dopant composites with a crystalline (Cr)-chiral nematic (N*) phase transition. By mixing particles with different pitches of the N* phase in the Cr phase and crosslinking the liquid crystal (LC) monomer molecules by photopolymerisation in the planarly oriented N* phase, an N*-LC composite film with a non-uniform pitch distribution was obtained. Experimental results show that the bandwidth of the reflection spectrum and the location of reflection band of the composite films can be controlled accurately by controlling the pitch lengths of the N* phase of the particles. Effects of polymerisation temperature and UV intensity on the non-uniform pitch distribution of N*-LC composite films were investigated.
  Rishipal R. Bansode , Wei Huang , Sanjit K. Roy , Madhu Mehta and Kamal D. Mehta
  Metabolic syndrome is common in the general population, butthere is little information available on the underlying signalingmechanisms regulating triglyceride (TG) content in the body.In the current study, we have uncovered a role for protein kinaseCβ (PKCβ) in TG homeostasis by studying the consequencesof a targeted disruption of this kinase. PKCβ-/- mutantmice were considerably leaner and the size of white fat depotswas markedly decreased compared with wild-type littermates.TG content in the liver and skeletal muscle of PKCβ-/-mice was also significantly low. Interestingly, mutant animalswere hyperphagic and exhibited higher food intake and reducedfeed efficiency versus wild type. The protection from obesityinvolves elevated oxygen consumption/energy expenditure andincreased fatty acid oxidation in adipose tissue with concurrentincreased mitochondria genesis, up-regulation of PGC-1α and UCP-2,and down-regulation of perilipin. The ability of PKCβ deficiencyto promote fat burning in adipocytes may suggest novel therapeuticstrategies for obesity and obesity-related disorders.
  Midori Umekawa , Wei Huang , Bing Li , Kiyotaka Fujita , Hisashi Ashida , Lai-Xi Wang and Kenji Yamamoto
  Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Mucor hiemalis (Endo-M), a family 85 glycoside hydrolase, acts on the β1,4 linkage of N,N`-diacetylchitobiose moiety in the N-linked glycans of glycoproteins and catalyzes not only the hydrolysis reaction but also the transglycosylation reaction that transfers the releasing sugar chain to an acceptor other than water to form a new glycosidic linkage. The transglycosylation activity of Endo-M holds a great promise for the chemo-enzymatic synthesis and glyco-engineering of glycoproteins, but the inherent hydrolytic activity for product hydrolysis and low transglycosylation have hampered its broad applications. This paper describes the site-directed mutagenesis on residues in the putative catalytic region of Endo-M to generate mutants with superior transglycosylation activity. Two interesting mutants were discovered. The Y217F mutant was found to possess much enhanced transglycosylation activity and yet much diminished hydrolytic activity in comparison with the wild-type Endo-M. Kinetic analyses revealed that the Km value of Y217F for an acceptor substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-L-N-acetylglucosaminide was only one-tenth of that of the wild-type, implicating a much higher affinity of Y217F for the acceptor substrate than the wild-type. The other mutant, N175A, acts like a glycosynthase. It was found that mutation at Asn175"knocked out" the hydrolytic activity, but the mutant was able to take the highly active sugar oxazolines (the transition state mimics) as donor substrates for transglycosylation. This is the first glycosynthase derived from endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidases that proceed via a substrate-assisted mechanism. Our findings provide further insights on the substrate-assisted mechanism of GH85. The usefulness of the novel glycosynthase was exemplified by the efficient synthesis of a human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) glycopeptide with potent anti-HIV activity.
  Mengwei Zang , Jun Gong , Lingqi Luo , Jing Zhou , Xiaoqin Xiang , Wei Huang , Qiren Huang , Xixi Luo , Martin Olbrot , Yihong Peng , Changyan Chen and Zhijun Luo
  Raf kinases are essential for regulating cell proliferation, survival, and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms by which Raf is activated are still incompletely understood. Phosphorylation plays a critical role in Raf activation in response to mitogens. The present study characterizes phosphorylation of Ser338, a crucial event for Raf-1 activation. Here we report that mutation of Lys375 to Met diminishes phosphorylation of Ser338 on both wild type Raf-1 in cells treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and a constitutively active mutant in which Tyr340/Tyr341 are replaced by 2 aspartic acids, a conserved substitution present in natural B-Raf. The loss of Ser338 phosphorylation in these Raf mutants is not engendered by a mutation-induced conformational change, inasmuch as mutation of another site (Ser471 to Ala) in the activation segment also abolishes Ser338 phosphorylation, whereas both the kinase-dead mutants of Raf-1 are phosphorylated well by active Pak1. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Ser338 is inhibited by Sorafenib, a Raf kinase inhibitor, but not by the MEK inhibitor U0126. Interestingly, a kinase-dead mutation and Sorafenib also markedly reduce phosphorylation of Ser445 on B-Raf, a site equivalent to Raf-1 Ser338. Finally, our data reveal that Ser338 is phosphorylated on inactive Raf-1 by an active mutant of Raf-1 when they are dimerized in cells and that artificial dimerization of Raf-1 causes Ser338 phosphorylation, accompanied by activation of ERK1/2. Altogether, our data suggest that Ser338 on Raf-1 is autophosphorylated in response to mitogens.
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