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Articles by W Guo
Total Records ( 3 ) for W Guo
  C Zhang , Y Tan , W Guo , C Li , S Ji , X Li and L. Cai

Renal protection against diabetes-induced pathogenic injuries by multiple exposures to low-dose radiation (LDR) was investigated to develop a novel approach to the prevention of renal disease for diabetic subjects. C57BL/6J mice were given multiple low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 60 x 6 mg/kg) to produce a type 1 diabetes. Two weeks after diabetes onset, some of diabetic mice and age-matched nondiabetic mice were exposed whole body to 25 mGy X-rays every other day for 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk. Diabetes caused a significant renal dysfunction, shown by time-dependent increase in urinary microalbumin (Malb) and decrease in urinary creatinine (Cre), and pathological changes, shown by significant increases in renal structural changes and PAS-positive staining. However, diabetes-induced renal dysfunction and pathological changes were significantly, albeit partially, attenuated by multiple exposures to LDR. Furthermore, LDR protection against diabetes-induced renal dysfunction and pathological changes was associated with a significant suppression of diabetes-increased systemic and renal inflammation, shown by significant increases in serum and renal TNF, ICAM-1, IL-18, MCP-1, and PAI-1 contents. To further explore the mechanism by which LDR prevents diabetes-induced renal pathological changes, renal oxidative damage was examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining for 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal. Significant increase in oxidative damage was observed in diabetic mice, but not diabetic mice, with LDR. Renal fibrosis, examined by Western blotting of connective tissue growth factor and Masson's trichrome staining, was also evident in the kidneys of diabetic mice but not diabetic mice with LDR. These results suggest that multiple exposures to LDR significantly suppress diabetes-induced systemic and renal inflammatory response and renal oxidative damage, resulting in a prevention of the renal dysfunction and fibrosis.

  Z Ji , L Zhang , W Guo , C. M McHale and M. T. Smith

Both occupational exposure to the leukemogen benzene and in vitro exposure to its metabolite hydroquinone (HQ) lead to the induction of numerical and structural chromosome changes. Several studies have shown that HQ can form DNA adducts, disrupt microtubule assembly and inhibit DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) activity. As these are potential mechanisms underlying endoreduplication (END), a phenomenon that involves DNA amplification without corresponding cell division, we hypothesized that HQ could cause END. We measured END in the human lymphoblastoid cell line, TK6, treated with HQ (0–20 µM) and etoposide (0–0.2 µM) for 48 h. Etoposide was used as a positive control as it is a topo II poison and established human leukemogen that has previously been shown to induce END in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Both HQ and etoposide significantly induced END in a dose-dependent manner (Ptrend < 0.0001 and Ptrend = 0.0003, respectively). Since END may underlie the acquisition of high chromosome numbers by tumour cells, it may play a role in inducing genomic instability and subsequent carcinogenesis from HQ and etoposide. In order to further explore the cytogenetic effects of HQ and etoposide, we also examined specific structural changes. HQ did not induce translocations of chromosome 11 [t(11;?)] but significantly induced translocations of chromosome 21 [t(21;?)] and structural chromosome aberrations (SCA) (Ptrend = 0.0415 and Ptrend < 0.0001, respectively). Etoposide potently induced all these structural changes (Ptrend < 0.0001). The lack of an effect of HQ on t(11;?) and the reduced ability of HQ to induce t(21;?) and SCA, compared with etoposide, further suggests that HQ acts primarily as a topo II catalytic inhibitor rather than as a topo II poison in intact human cells.

  W Guo , D Smith , K Aviszus , T Detanico , R. A Heiser and L. J. Wysocki

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by high-avidity IgG antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) that are almost certainly products of T cell–dependent immune responses. Whether critical amino acids in the third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) of the ANA originate from V(D)J recombination or somatic hypermutation (SHM) is not known. We studied a mouse model of SLE in which all somatic mutations within ANA V regions, including those in CDR3, could be unequivocally identified. Mutation reversion analyses revealed that ANA arose predominantly from nonautoreactive B cells that diversified immunoglobulin genes via SHM. The resolution afforded by this model allowed us to demonstrate that one ANA clone was generated by SHM after a VH gene replacement event. Mutations producing arginine substitutions were frequent and arose largely (66%) from base changes in just two codons: AGC and AGT. These codons are abundant in the repertoires of mouse and human V genes. Our findings reveal the predominant role of SHM in the development of ANA and underscore the importance of self-tolerance checkpoints at the postmutational stage of B cell differentiation.

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