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Articles by V.K. Maheshwari
Total Records ( 3 ) for V.K. Maheshwari
  Ravindra Kumar , Anuja Gupta , V.K. Maheshwari and S.S. Atwal
  Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major food crops of the world. Due to lack of awareness, the farmers do not distinguish the seed from grain and hence the quality of farmers saved seed remains below standard. This seed carries microflora which play an important role in reducing the seed viability. Among seed microflora, fungal load on the seed is very important. In this study, seed samples of different varieties of paddy were collected from farmers in different villages of Haryana from 2002 to 2012. The seed was subjected to seed health test by blotter technique and observed under stereo-binocular microscope to assess its fungal load. The per cent germination and vigour index were also evaluated by paper towel method. A total of 30 fungi belonging to different groups were recorded from the samples of farmers’ saved seed. Alternaria padwickii (28.52%), Curvularia lunata (22.67%), Alternaria alternata (10.51%), Rhizopus stolonifer (8.96%), Aspergillus flavus (8.26%) and Fusarium moniliforme (7.15%) were recorded as major fungi associated with the seed. However, in breeder seed of different paddy varieties grown at this station, only 22 fungal species belonging to different groups were recorded. Out of which Alternaria padwickii (10.62%), Curvularia lunata (7.35%), Alternaria alternata (6.54%), Aspergillus flavus (6.07%) and Rhizopus stolonifer (5.21%) were recorded as the major fungi associated with this seed. Average per cent germination and vigour of farmers’ saved seed of different paddy varieties was significantly lower than the breeder seed of different varieties of paddy grown at this station.
  A. Kumar , A. Gupta , S.S. Atwal , V.K. Maheshwari and C.B. Singh
  Karnal bunt disease of wheat caused by Tilletia indica is a designated disease and a limiting factor in wheat export because most countries regulate the Karnal Bunt (KB) pathogen as a quarantine pest. KB pathogen is seed, soil and air borne. The seed must be threshed and examined for KB infection. Therefore, the post harvest management of KB in wheat seed production through mechanical processing is very important. Pre-cleaner and screen grader removed 83.1 and 61.4% of total KB infected seed present in the seed lot and reduced KB infection from 1.42 to 0.24% and 4.27 to 1.65% in 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively but it is much higher than the permissible limit of 0.05%. Hence, a total of 18 combinations, comprising of three deck slopes (S1-20, S2-2.50, S3-30), three feedings (F1- 5 kg, F2- 10 kg, F3- 15 kg min-1) and two output settings (O1- 45 cm deck width, O2- 43 cm deck width) of specific gravity separator were studied with an objective of getting maximum Karnal bunt free seed per unit of time. Minimum KB infection in final product (0.04 and 0.28%), maximum final output (12.58 and 12.78 kg min-1) and KB free seed recovery per minute (12.58 and 12.75 kg) with 84.1 and 86.4% recovery efficiency has been obtained by the treatment S1F3O1 (slope of deck 20, feeding 15 kg min-1, output deck width 45 cm) in 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. Mechanical processing reduced KB infection by more than 93%, depending on the intensity of infection and increased seed quality i.e., seed germination improved by 7.71% and physical purity by 2.41%.
  Anuja Gupta , Ravindra Kumar and V.K. Maheshwari
  Bakanae disease of rice caused by Fusarium fujikuroi is widespread in all rice growing countries of the world and is of great concern especially in Basmati paddy. Different management practices viz. seed treatments, seedling dip treatments and soil amendments were integrated for the management of bakanae disease in Paddy variety Pusa Basmati 1121. Seed treatment with carbendazim (Bavistin) and Trichoderma viride gave 22.7 and 11.4% control of the disease. However, the disease incidence did not vary much amongst different seed treatments under FYM+T. viride treated soil conditions. Seed treatment with bavistin and T. viride gave 10.1 and 10.2% disease, respectively as against 10.3% in crop grown from untreated seed under FYM+T. viride soil condition. Seedling dip in 0.2% bavistin or 0.4% T. viride solution before transplanting significantly reduced the disease incidence. Seedling dip treatments with bavistin and T. viride solutions resulted in 55.5 and 34.5% control of the disease, respectively, irrespective of soil amendments. The disease incidence was 10.3 and 11.8% in FYM+T. viride treated soil and T. viride treated soil, respectively as against 13.6% in untreated soil. The highest disease incidence (27.3%) was recorded in non-amended soils (control) transplanted from nursery of untreated seeds and the seedlings dipped in plain water at the time of transplanting. The disease control in FYM+T. viride treated soil and T. viride treated soil was statistically at par and significantly superior to untreated soil. The grain yield in plots transplanted from all the seed treatment and seedling dip treatment were statistically superior to plots transplanted from nursery raised from untreated seed and seedling dipped in plain water.
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