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Articles by V.K. Gupta
Total Records ( 10 ) for V.K. Gupta
  V.K. Gupta , R. Gaur , N. Gautam , P. Kumar , I.J. Yadav and N.S. Darmwal
  The purpose of this study was to characterization of xylanase producing Fusarium solani isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for xylanase enzyme production. Screening of Fusarium solani isolate was based on the diameter of the clear zone formation in oat spelt xylan agar plates, Fusarium solani isolate F7 was selected and optimized for xylanase enzyme production using cheaper substrate like wheat straw, rice straw, rice bran and wood husk. Maximum enzyme activity was observed in wheat straw (78.32 U mL-1). Optimum pH and temperature for xylanase activity were found to be 5.5 and 30° at 3% substrate concentration. In purification step, 75% ammonium sulphate saturation was found to be suitable giving maximum xylanase activity. Purified xylanase yielded single band with a molecular weight of 89 kDa. The use of wheat straw as a major carbon source is particularly valuable because oat spelt xylan is very expensive, The Fusarium solani F7 isolate proved to be a promising microorganism for xylanase production.
  P.K. Jain , V.K. Gupta , A.K. Misra , R. Gaur , V. Bajpai and S. Issar
  Fungi are extremely versatile class of organisms comprised mostly of saprophytes, grows on dead organic material. A relatively small number of fungal species have developed a parasitic lifestyle, associated with the ability to recognize and penetrate a specific host, exploit its nutrient reserves, overcome its innate defense responses and cause disease. Many organisms attacked by fungi encompasses evolutionary distinct groups from lower to higher eukaryotes, most prominently plants, insects and mammals, including humans. To cause disease, fungal pathogens rely on an arsenal of pathogenicity and virulence factors, which’s spatially and temporally correct deployment determines the basic pathogenic potential and the extent of infection, respectively. Being a common contaminant and a well-known plant pathogen, Fusarium sp. may cause various infections in humans. Fusarium is one of the emerging causes of opportunistic mycoses to human and animal. Up to date, approximate 15 species had been reported to cause human and animal diseases. Common species includes species are F. Solani (commonest), F. oxysporum, F. verticoides, F. proliferatum and F. anthophilum.
  N. Sharma , K.P. Sharma , R.K. Gaur and V.K. Gupta
  Plants represent the major component of biota and have the capability to synthesize their food through the process of photosynthesis. Physiological and environmental changes affect their health and make them vulnerable to variety of diseases thus directly or indirectly affect other components of ecosystem. A large number of environmental issues are linked with the eradication of plant diseases with chemical compounds. Most of these diseases are caused by fungal and insect pathogens. Chitin is the main structural component of these organisms and thus the enzyme responsible to hydrolyze chitin content are receiving attention in regard to their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and in microbial biocontrol agents. Therefore, understanding the overview of chitinase will provide a basis for improving the pathogenic activity of potential biocontrol strains, for developing novel biological control strategies and for exploring their roles in the plant defense. The present review describes the properties of chitinase with respect to plant health improvement.
  V.K. Gupta , J. Singh , R. Kumar and A. Bhanot
  The aim of this research was to study the pharmacognostic parameters of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (family: Lamiaceae). Macroscopic study showed that the leaves of this plant possess dark green color with characteristic aromatic odour and bitter taste. Powder microscopy showed the presence of numerous glandular simple trichomes of average length 101 μm and anomocytic stomata were also present, whereas, T.S of leaf showed that the leaf has a pot shape midrib and a thin lamina with uneven lower epidermis attached at the lateral sides of its upper side leaving a concave central dorsal depression. Both upper and lower epidermis showed simple, covering, uniseriate trichomes as well as sessile short stalked glandular trichomes. Quantitative microscopy viz., veinlet termination number, vein islet number, stomatal number, stomatal index; physico-chemical parameters viz., ash values, extractive values, Thin layer chromatography (TLC); florescence analysis of Ocimum gratissimum L. were also been determined. TLC studies showed the presence of various phytochemicals in the extracts. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids (methanolic, ethanolic extracts); alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids (petroleum ether, chloroform extracts) and carbohydrates in alcoholic extract. This is the first such study on standardization of Occimum gratissimum L. leaf which would serve as a standard reference for identification and distinguishing the plant from its adulterants.
  A. Gupta , V.K. Gupta , D.R. Modi and L.P. Yadava
  The cultural and nutrient requirements of Aspergillus niger for production of α-amylase in production media containing different pH, temperature, incubation period, metal ion concentrations, surfactants, carbon sources and nitrogen sources were quantified in present study. The optimum pH, temperature and incubation period for enzyme production were 5.0, 30°C and 5th day, respectively. Of the carbon sources, starch at 0.5% was recorded to be the best carbon source for enzyme production. Peptone at 0.03% was ideal nitrogen source. However, surfactants Tween-80, Triton X-100 and Sodium dodecyl sulphate at 0.02, 0.002 and 0.0002% concentration were most effective for enhancement of α-amylase production. The main objectives of the present study were to use a suitable fungal strain for production of extra cellular alpha-amylase, to determine the time course for the production of alpha-amylase and to study the effects of external substances that may enhance the production of extra cellular alpha-amylase, including metal ions and surfactants.
  V.K. Gupta , A.K. Misra , R.K. Gaur , P.K. Jain , D. Gaur and Saroj Sharma
  Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an important fruit crop of subtropical countries. It is grown almost in all the states of India. It is a hardy crop and is cultivated successfully even in neglected soils and is attacked by a large number of pathogens, mainly fungi. Wilt is the most destructive disease for guava plant in India and losses due to this disease are substantial. Psidium guajava wilt is known to occur from India, Latin America, Malaysia, Pakistan, South Africa, South Asia and Taiwan. Wilt of guava from India was first reported in 1935 from Allahabad. The disease is soil-borne and is difficult to control. Wilt is predominantly caused by the species of Fusarium, of which F. oxysporum is generally the main cause. The other species of Fusarium i.e., Fusarium solani are also dominates in isolation. Since, the disease results in the complete mortality of the affected plants, the loss is total. Although, severe loss is there in the annual crops also, huge monitory losses occur especially in perennial fruit trees as it is a loss of labour of several years. Guava is a crop where this disease is very serious and it can be said that this is the only disease of guava which is threatening guava cultivation in India. It causes monitory as well as nutritional loss. The present communication, deals guava wilt to depict its present status.
  V.K. Gupta and S.K. Sharma
  In this study, antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Ficus bengalensis Linn. (FBWE) root was investigated for its free radical scavenging activity by adopting various in vitro models. The extract was investigated for its antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity, hydrogen peroxide activity, determination of total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenolic reagent. FBWE showed maximum scavenging of DPPH radical (96.07%) at 250 μg mL-1 concentration and hydrogen peroxide (69.23%) at 1000 μg mL-1 concentration. Reducing power was also dose dependent and total phenolic content evaluated that 1 mg of FBWE contains 25.34 μg equivalent of gallic acid. The extract showed significant results when compared with the standard compounds.
  Kusum Dhakar , V.K. Gupta , M.S. Rathore and R.K. Gaur
  Gene silencing can occur either repression of transcription, termed Transcriptional Gene Silencing (TGS) or through mRNA degradation, termed post transcriptional gene silencing. Transcriptional gene silencing results from a marked decrease in tracription and hypermethylaton of genes affected. RNAi or PTGS discovered as a natural anti-viral system in plants. Studies revealed that geminiviruses which replicates in nucleus can induce PTGS and become the target for it. RNAi has a strong potential to reduce the infection of geminiviruses. Several studies are already conducted on different genes geminiviruses and that are used for generating virus resistance plants. Our main objective of present study is to develop resistance against geminivirus using a novel strategy based on RNAi. Here we summarise how the RNAi mechanism works against begomovirus infection in plants and how we can utilize it to reduce the losses.
  R. Prajapat , R.K. Gaur , R. Raizada and V.K. Gupta
  Structural bioinformatics is concerned with computational approaches to predict and analyse the spatial structure of proteins and nucleic acids. The 3D models can be obtained most easily if the 3D structure of a homologous protein is known (homology modeling, comparative modeling). Homology modeling or comparative modeling is based on the fact that a structure of a protein can be reliably modeled when its sequence is sufficiently similar to a protein sequence with known 3D structure. The Geminivirus taxonomic group of plant viruses is characterized by geminate particles and genomes consisting of single-stranded circular DNA (sscDNA) molecules of about 2-5 to 2.8 kb in size. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity of begomovirus from different crops and weeds of different region on the basis of homology modeling. This high degree of genetic diversity suggests a recent transfer of indigenous begomovirus from wild hosts into economic important crops.
  P.K. Jain , V.K. Gupta , R.K. Gaur , M. Lowry , D.P. Jaroli and U.K. Chauhan
  Environmental pollution with petroleum and petrochemical products (complex mixture of hydrocarbon) has been recognized as one of the most important serious current problem. People working in garage etc. are always exposed with oily sludge which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic. Accidental leakages from petroleum carrying ships lead to oily layers over the water surface, possessing great threat to the existing flora and fauna. The currently used physical and chemical treatments are effective for the degradation of petroleum products but they lag behind in the desired properties, apart they frequently produce many hazardous compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic for living beings. In contrast, bioremediation is effective treatment in terms of efficacy, safety on long terms use, cost and simplicity of administration. However, for the foreseeable future, long term tolerance studies are needed before being recommended for large scale use.
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