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Articles by V.A. Maina
Total Records ( 6 ) for V.A. Maina
  V.A. Maina , A. Muktar and Y.G. Sabo
  The ovaries of 127 Bos indicus cows were used to evaluate the influence of Body Condition Score (BCS) on ovarian activity. Each cow was given a body condition score using a scale of 1 to 5 before slaughter. The presence or absence of pregnancy was noted after slaughter and the ovaries were collected. Follicles were measured and identified as small (1 to 4 mm), medium (5 to 8 mm) or large (≥9 mm). Corpus luteum was classified as functional CL or Corpus albicans based on gross morphology. Luteal structures and follicles were compared with different phases of the oestrus cycle. Based on this, the cows were classified as cycling, pregnant, anestrus, prepubertal heifers or having abnormal ovarian cyclicity. Cows with BCS 3 exhibited more medium follicles (p<0.001) than cows with BCS 1 and BCS 2. Cows with BCS 3 had more large follicles (p<0.01) than cows with BCS 1. The incidences of cycling and pregnant animals correlated positively with BCS. Incidences of anestrus and abnormal ovarian cyclicity correlated negatively with BCS. It was concluded that change in BCS had significant effect on ovarian function of Zebus cows.
  Y.G. Sabo , U.K. Sandabe , V.A. Maina and H.G. Balla
  Today prostaglandin and progesterone has been found widely used in several schemes of oestrus synchronization and controlled breeding program. Several controlled breeding program, have been developed for synchronizing groups of all open or lactating cows within a breeding group with or without ovarian palpation. Such programs are reviewed in this article which involves extending the luteal phase by treatment with exogenous progesterone such as: progesterone treatment regimes using syncro-mate-B, progesterone releasing intravaginal device, melengesterol acetate-select and melegestrol acetate plus prostaglandin. Also reviewed in the program is the termination of the luteal phase by treatment with prostaglandin or its analogues. These includes, controlled breeding without ovarian palpation such as, the 7-days program; 11-days program, target breeding, ovsynch program, Heat synch, Cosynch and pre synch-ovsynch program. In our opinion full potential of progesterone and prostaglandin for the detection of oestrus and timed artificial insemination should be utilized. This reduces the much labour input employed in previous years. The practitioner of the livestock herd health must-develop strategies for the delivery of this technology to livestock farmers, its use and limitations.
  V.A. Maina , S.U.R . Chaudhari , G.D. Mshelia and A. Williams
  The semen characteristics of Sahel bucks was investigated over a one year period to determine the influence of season on the ejaculate mass activity, motility, sperm concentration, percent live spermatozoa. These variables were significantly higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. Total spermatozoa per ejaculate averaged 4.74±0.99×109 mL-1 and 3.75±0.99×109 mL-1 for the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Corresponding proportions of total morphologically defective spermatozoa per ejaculate were 6.48±1.13% and 17.69±1.13%. Percent live spermatozoa were 87.5±0.75 and 64.1±0.75%, while the corresponding sperm concentration were 3.73×109 mL-1 and 2.67×109 mL-1 for the dry and rainy season, respectively. All differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Ejaculate quality was better during the dry season. Consequently semen collected and frozen during the dry season may produce higher fertility rates in an Artificial Insemination programme.
  V.A. Maina , S.U.R. Chaudhari and A. Williams
  A study was undertaken to determine the semen characteristics of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks. Five bucks were subjected to semen collection from two to twelve months of age. It was observed that the values of the semen characteristics increased over-age (months) and that at three months of age, there were significant levels of semen characteristic values. In conclusion, the spermiogram of the brown ecotype of sahel bucks was studied with a view to document the semen profile of indigenous and possibly evolving ecotypes of sahal bucks for future studies of improved breeding and selection.
  V.A. Maina , S.U.R. Chaudhari and A.Y. Ribadu
  A research was conducted to study the influence of ecotype on semen characteristics in 5 white and 5 brown ecotypes of sahel goats. Semen was collected from eight to forty-eight weeks of age and analyzed for semen characteristics and abnormalities. Body weights and scrotal circumference were also measured from three months to 1 year of age on a monthly basis. Analysis to determine the difference between the two ecotypes was performed. The only significant difference between the two ecotypes was in body weights, scrotal circumference and protoplasmic droplet abnormality. It was concluded that there was no superiority in the mean semen characteristics between the white and brown ecotypes of sahel bucks. This may be due to the total absence of coordinated breeding programmes evidenced by random indiscriminate mating in the goat population in Borno pastoral setting. This suggests that the conservation and preservation of most cherished traits are un-achievable under the current husbandry practices.
  V.A. Maina , S.U.R. Chaudhari and G.D. Mshelia
  This study was undertaken to document the spermiogram of the white ecotype of Sahel bucks in Maiduguri from peripubertal, pubertal to post pubertal age. Five bucks were subjected to semen collection for a period of ten months. Their body weights and scrotal circumference were also measured from three to twelve months of age, while semen characteristics were analysed from two to twelve months of age. The high significant correlation values obtained between the semen characteristics with body weight and scrotal circumference showed that as one semen characteristic value was increasing, the body weights and scrotal circumference were also increasing. It was also observed that the values of the semen characteristics increased systematically over the months in the period of study. It was concluded that significant levels of semen characteristics at three months indicate that male Sahel goats could begin producing semen with viable spermatozoa by then as other early maturity breeds.
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