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Articles by V. Zoffmann
Total Records ( 2 ) for V. Zoffmann
  M. Due-Christensen , V. Zoffmann , E. Hommel and M. Lau
  Aims  To test whether patients with Type 1 diabetes would join support groups and benefit by improving psychosocial functioning, regardless of their HbA1c levels.

Methods  A pre-post test with follow-up after 6 and 12 months was conducted as a concurrent mixed-method study. The convenience sample included patients with Type 1 diabetes aged ≥ 21 years, having been diagnosed ≥ 1 year earlier. Primary outcome was diabetes-related distress (using the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale). Secondary outcomes were psychological distress and depressive symptoms (Symptom Check List -90-R/Global Severity Index and depression subscale), well-being (World Health Organization 5) and HbA1c.

Results  Equal numbers of patients with HbA1c above and below 64 mmol/mol (8%) joined the support groups (n = 54). Focus group interviews revealed that major benefits were feeling less alone and being intuitively understood among peers. The patients perceived the support groups as a safe environment for sharing experiences. Problem Areas in Diabetes, Global Severity Index and depression subscale scores were significantly reduced post-intervention and maintained at 1-year follow-up. Well-being increased insignificantly. HbA1c was unchanged.

Conclusions  Support groups are able to reduce diabetes-related and psychological distress 1 year after the intervention for patients with both good and poor glycaemic control displaying high levels of distress. Although patients with severely high levels of diabetes-related distress might need more extensive therapeutic interventions to further reduce their level of distress. Further, interventions that target specific self-management problems are needed for patients with poor glycaemic control to help them accomplish lower levels of HbA1c. Moreover, healthcare providers must be aware that patients with good glycaemic control might have an unacknowledged psychosocial burden of living with the illness.

  V. Zoffmann , D. Vistisen and M. Due-Christensen


To describe the level of glycaemic control, complications and psychosocial functioning and the relationships between these variables in the under-researched group of younger adults with Type 1 diabetes.


Local electronic health records provided data on age, gender, disease duration, HbA1c and complications for 710 younger adults (1835 years) with Type 1 diabetes. A questionnaire with wide-ranging psychometric scales was used to measure various aspects of psychosocial functioning: the burden of diabetes-related problems, well-being, self-esteem, perceived competence in managing diabetes, perceived autonomy support from health professionals and self-management motivations. Furthermore, patients reported weekly self-monitored blood glucose measurements and insulin administration. Associations between HbA1c, complication and psychosocial indicators were tested using linear and logistic regression models, adjusted stepwise for confounders, including age, gender, diabetes duration, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, smoking and BMI.


In total, 406 (57%) participants responded. The responders had a mean age of 27.1 (5.1) years, a mean diabetes duration of 13.5 (7.9) years and an HbA1c of 66 mmol/mol (8.2%), with similar values for both genders (P = 0.87). Complications were observed among women more commonly than among men (31.6 vs. 18.8%, P < 0.01), and high distress levels were more prevalent among women compared with men (51.2 vs. 31.9%, P < 0.0001). Except for perceived autonomy support, the psychosocial variables were all associated with HbA1c (P < 0.001).


The high prevalence of poor glycaemic control, early complications and psychosocial distress require health-promoting interventions tailored to the interrelated clinical and psychosocial needs of younger adults with Type 1 diabetes.

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