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Articles by U.J. Omphile
Total Records ( 9 ) for U.J. Omphile
  E.E. Waugh , A.A. Aganga , D. Seabo , U.J. Omphile and C.M. Tsopito
  The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of grit on the growth rate, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of ostrich chicks which were given grit and those not provided with grit. Six female and four male ostrich chicks aged nine (9) weeks were randomly assigned into two feeding groups using completely randomized experimental design. In each feeding group there were five young birds raised in a pen. All the young birds were fed with ostrich grower`s mash and water ad libitum. One group had access to grit during the study while other group did not. At week 18 weeks feed given to both groups of young ostriches and leftover were weighed on daily basis. Body weights were recorded on a monthly basis throughout the study. Average daily feed intake and average daily weight gain were determined. Feed conversion efficiency was calculated using average daily feed intake and average daily weight gain. The data was analyzed using Student - t analysis at P< 0.05. Average daily weight gain was higher (0.38 ± 0.03 kg/d) in ostrich chicks that had access to grit as compared to ostrich chicks (0.37 ± 0.04kg/d) that had no access to grit. Average daily feed (dry matter) intake was higher (1.95 ±0.27kg/d) in ostriches that had no access to grit than those (1.94 ± 0.20kg/d) access to grit. Feed conversion efficiency of ostriches with access to grit was higher (5.11 ± 0.93) than those (5.27 ± 1.30) without access to grit. Giving grit to young ostriches should be recommended both to improve growth rate and feed conversion efficiency and to reduce feed intake.
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile , R.G. Chabo , M. Kgosimore and M. Mochankana
  An initial study covered the feed resources and nutritional ecology of Tswana goats kept under extensive communal management conditions in Gaborone Agricultural Region. Such goats feed on a variety of browses and herbaceous forages throughout the year. Only 30% of the respondent farmers provided their goats with supplementary feeds implying that most goats in Gaborone agricultural region rely solely on natural vegetation for their feed. A further study surveyed the production parameters of goats under extensive management by smallholder farmers over a 12 month period from February 2000 to February 2001. This survey covered 375 goats, comprising 87% females and 13.5% males (12% castrates and 1.5% intact). There were 168 kids. The mortality rate for the kids was 33.3% and that for adults was 5.6%. Disease accounted for 44.6% of the overall pre-weaning mortality. Of the 168 kids born during the period of study, 52.4, 45.2 and 2.4% were singles, twins and quadruplets (one birth), respectively. The average birth weight of the kids was 3.6 kg, while the average daily weight gain was 58g per day. The kids weighed 17.7 kg on average at the age of 240 days. The mean body weights were 8.6?0.6, 15.3?0.8 and 23.3?1.4 kg for the age groups 30-120 days, 121-240 days and 241-360 days, respectively. The net numerical growth in the herd was -17.6%, with a prolificacy rate of 93.3%.
  M.H.D. Mareko , A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile and M. Mokhudu
  Twenty five Tswana goats of 7 months of age were obtained from Botswana College of Agriculture farm. The goats were balanced out for weight (average weight; 20.1±0.1 kg) and sex (3 females and 2 males per set) and were randomly allocated to the treatments. They were individually housed and fed browses (Teminalia sericea and Boscia albitrunca) for 63 days, at two levels; high (800 g) and low (400 g), resulting in the following treatments; TS 800, TS 400, BA 800 and BA 400. The control group (C 800) was instead supplemented with lurcene at 800g daily. Grass hay (Cenchrus celiaris) and wheat bran were offered as a basal diet and as an energy source, respectively, to all the treatments. On day 63, feed was withdrawn overnight and the goats were transported to the Botswana Meat Commission (BMC) on the 64th day. Goats were processed according to the standard abattoir procedures and their carcasses were cut up into 5 primal cuts (rib, chuckblade, flank, leg and neck), which were thereafter weighed. Lean tissue, free from visible fat, was obtained from the right thigh part of the leg for chemical analyses. Dry Matter (DM), moisture, ash, Organic Matter (OM), Crude Protein (CP) and crude fat was done on the lean tissue. The data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncanís multiple range tests were used to separate means. Final live weights ranged from 24.2 to 27.8kg, with C800 having significantly higher weights compared to all treatment groups. Dressing percentage ranged from 45.9 to 51.2% and TS400 had higher value (p<0.05) compared to BA400. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in primal cuts weights between the treatments. Meat moisture content showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between BA400 goats and other treatments. However when BA400 was compared with C800, no difference (p>0.05) was observed (77.94 vs 76.04%, respectively). Meat ash content for BA800 was found to be higher (p<0.05) than that of other treatments but similar (p>0.05) to that of C800. Meat dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and crude fat averaged 24.00, 97.77, 71.06 and 6.90%, respectively, without any significant differences (p>0.05) observed between the groups. Meat mineral contents averaged 0.058, 0.133, 1.037, 0.833 and 0.224% for calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and magnesium, respectively and again no without significant differences (p>0.05) were observed between the groups. Goats supplemented on browses performed relatively like the lurcene supplemented goats though the browses are known to contain tannins. B. albitrunca and T. sericea can be successfully used by farmers as supplements during the dry seasons to raise goats for good quality meat.
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile , T. Thema and L.Z. Wilson
  The study was conducted to determine the effect of additives on the chemical composition of ryegrass (L. multiflorum) cut at five different stages of growth. They were harvested fortnightly as from September to November 2003.The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility nutrient and mineral elements. The young and immature plants were highly digestible but as maturity increased, yield also increased, but quality decreased. The digestibility decreased as lignification of the plant material increased with plant maturity.
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile , T. Thema and J.C. Baitshotlhi
  The study was conducted to determine the influence of additives on the chemical composition of napier grass (P. purpureum) cut at five different heights of growth (50, 75 cm, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 m). They were harvested monthly from September 2003 to January 2004. The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility, nutrients and mineral elements. The young and immature napier grass cut at 50 cm height were highly digestible but as maturity increased, yield also increased, but quality decreased. The digestibility decreased as lignifications of the plant material increased with grass height and maturity. There was improved chemical composition and digestibility of napier grass silage cut at different heights treated with additives compared to the plain napier grass silage without additives.
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile and T.F. Ntshontsi
  Browse species were analysed to determine their forage value to goats in Kgatleng district of Botswana. The plants were analysed for Crude Protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF), ash, dry matter and condensed tannins. Most of the plants have CP content around 8% in the dry season. Ash ranged from 3.25-9.58% and the tannin content of 1.03-2.98%. Goats under traditional management depend mostly on browses especially in the dry season. There is no supplementary feed provided by the majority of the farmers. This study recommends the provision of supplementary feeds in the dry season for grazing goats.
  U.J. Omphile , A.A. Aganga and B. Malamba
  The study was aimed at determining the botanical diet composition of goats foraging in Acacia bush savanna rangeland in southeast Botswana. The dominant species in the study area were of the genus Acacia with an understory of mostly perennial grasses. Acacia were the dominant plant species consumed by goats. Certain perennial grasses also featured prominently in their diets, but only during the wet season. Preference ratings for the plants comprising diets of goats were positive for about 80% of the woody plants during the dry season and 50% during the wet season. Less than 30% of the grasses were selected for during the wet season while all were discriminated against in the dry season.
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile and T.M. Sebolai
  Fifteen female and ten castrated yearling Tswana goats were weighed and randomly divided into five groups of five goats of which 3 were females and 2 were males. The objectives of the project was to determine effects of T. serecia and B. albitrunca at two levels on faecal egg worm count, bacterial count and bacterial identification. All the goats were fed buffel grass hay (Cenchrus ciliaris) as a basal diet, while Medicago sativa (0% tannin content) was fed to the control group as a supplements. The other four groups were fed low B. albitrunca (0.267% tannin in diet), high B. albitrunca (0.497% tannin in diet), Low T. serecia (0.342% tannin in diet) and high T. serecia (0.497% tannin in diet) as a supplement. The basal diet comprised of 60% of the ration, while Lucerne or the browses made up the remaining 40%. Wheat bran was provided at 250 g to provide energy for the goats. Water was provided daily. The study lasted for 60 days and faecal sampling was done fortnightly from the rectum of the goats in the morning. The faecal samples which were collected fortnightly from rectum of the goats were used for evaluation of egg worm count and bacterial identification. After a week of feeding T. sericea there was significant reduction on egg worm count (p<0.05), while on other treatments there were no significant differences in all faecal sampling dates (p>0.05).
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile and F.G. Keitheile
  In a metabolism trial study conducted at the Botswana College of Agriculture`s farm, twenty yearling Tswana goat castrates were used to determine the digestibility of diets containing two browse plants namely Terminalia serecia or Boscia albitrunca fed along with Cenchrus ciliaris and wheat bran. The browse plants were obtained from Sebele rangelands which were analyzed for proximate composition and evaluated for in vivo dry matter digestibility using Tswana goats. The animals were divided into five groups the control group and four treatment groups. Control group was offered per animal 800 g of lucerne while the treatment groups were offered; 400 g B. albitrunca, 800 g B. albitrunca, 400 g T. serecia and 800 g T. serecia, respectively. Buffel grass hay was offered at 400 g and 250 g wheat bran per goat for all groups and clean water was available at ad libitum. Percentage crude protein values obtained were 10.4, 6.84, 5.72 and 6.11 for lucerne (Medicago sativa), Cenchrus ciliaris, Terminalia serecia and Boscia albitrunca, respectively. The dry matter digestibility coefficients obtained for the goats were 0.692, 0.545, 0.481, 0.412 and 0.490 for control group, treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.
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