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Articles by U. Singh
Total Records ( 4 ) for U. Singh
  Vibhu Kapoor , U. Singh , S. K. Patil , H. Magre , L. K. Shrivastava , V. N. Mishra , R. O. Das , V. K. Samadhiya , J. Sanabria and R. Diamond
  The loss of major nutrients can be high in rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields, particularly rainfed rice, where water flowing from field to field during periods of high rainfall not only reduces the nutrient use efficiencies but also has the potential for environmental degradation. We examined the influence of deep point placement of N, P, and K briquettes compared to broadcast incorporation of N, P, and K on floodwater nutrient loads after fertilizer application and on the performance of wet season rice in a Vertisol. Broadcast application of N as urea resulted in an average 10 times higher amounts of ammonium N in floodwater compared to deep placement of urea briquette. The broadcast application of single superphosphate resulted in 67 times higher amounts of P in floodwater than plots receiving deep placed P. The floodwater NH4+–N and P content in the deep placement treatments were negligible—similar to floodwater N and P content without fertilizer application. The floodwater K amounts were also significantly lower with deep placed N–P–K briquettes. Significantly higher grain and straw yields, total N, P, and K uptake, and N and P use efficiencies were observed with deep placement of N–P–K compared to broadcast application of N–P–K. Deep placed N–P briquettes gave significantly higher grain yield, straw biomass, total P and K uptake, apparent P recovery, and agronomic N and P use efficiencies when plant spacing was reduced from 20 by 20 cm to 20 by 10 cm. Closer plant spacing led to better utilization of P and K and provided opportunities for deep placement of N–P or N–P–K briquettes in soils with low available P. Combining site specific characteristics (high soil pH, low percolation rate, high rainfall and surface runoffs) with plant spacing and N–P–K briquettes prepared based on site-specific nutrient requirements offers potential for higher yields, improved fertilizer use efficiency, balanced fertilization, and reduced nutrient losses.
  A Agarwal , D Gupta , G Yadav , P Goyal , P. K Singh and U. Singh

BACKGROUND: Postoperative sore throat (POST) contributes to postoperative morbidity. Licorice has been used as an expectorant in cough and cold preparations. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of licorice gargle for attenuating POST.

METHODS: Forty adults (18-60 yr), ASA physical status I and II of either sex, undergoing elective lumber laminectomy were randomized into two groups of 20 each. Group C: received water; Group L: received 0.5 g licorice in water. Both groups received a 30 mL mixture for 30 s, 5 min before anesthesia which was standardized. The incidence and severity of POST at rest and on swallowing and side effects were assessed at 0, 2, 4, and 24 h, postoperatively. Severity of POST was assessed by visual analog scale (between 0 and 100 mm; where 0 means no sore throat and 100 means worst imaginable sore throat). Postextubation cough was assessed immediately after tracheal extubation. Data were analyzed by Z test and Fisher’s exact test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant.

RESULTS: POST (incidence and severity) was reduced in the Group L compared with Group C at rest and on swallowing for all time points (P < 0.05), except that the severity of POST at rest, at 24 h, was similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Postextubation cough was reduced in Group L compared with Group C (P < 0.05). There was no difference in side effects between groups (P > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Licorice gargle performed 5 min before anesthesia is effective in attenuating the incidence and severity of POST.

  S. P Ambesh , N Singh , D Gupta , P. K Singh and U. Singh

Preinduction i.v. fentanyl bolus is associated with coughing in 28–65% of patients. Fentanyl-induced coughing (FIC) is not always benign and can be remarkably troublesome at the most critical moment of induction of anaesthesia when airway reflex is lost. We postulated that the huffing manoeuvre, a forced expiration against open glottis, just before i.v. fentanyl, may suppress this undesirable spasmodic cough.


Three hundred patients of ASA I and II, aged 18–60 yr, undergoing elective surgical procedures were randomly allocated into two groups consisting of 150 patients. Both groups received i.v. fentanyl (2.5 µg kg–1). Group 1 patients breathed normally whereas Group 2 patients were asked to perform huffing manoeuvre just before the fentanyl injection. The incidence of cough was recorded for 1 min before the induction of anaesthesia, and graded as mild (1–2 cough), moderate (3–5 cough), and severe (>5 cough). The incidence of FIC was analysed with Fisher's exact test and severity was analysed with the Mann–Whitney U-test. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant.


The incidence of cough was 32% in the control group and 4% in the huffing manoeuvre group (P<0.00). In the control group, 12% of FIC cases were moderate to severe in nature whereas no patient suffered severe coughing in the huffing manoeuvre group (P=0.049).


A huffing manoeuvre performed just before i.v. fentanyl (2.5 µg kg–1) significantly reduces the incidence and severity of FIC in the majority of the patients.

  M. B. Pandey , A. K. Singh , U. Singh , S. Singh and V. B. Pandey
  A new chalcone glycoside, chalcone-2′,4-dihydroxy-4′-O-β-D-glucoside has been isolated from Rhamnus nipalensis together with sitosterol, lupeol, di-O-methyldaidzein, kaempferol-4′-methylether, quercetin, physcion, sitosterol glucoside, emodin and their structures established by spectroscopic data. Isolation of these compounds are the first report from this plant.
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