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Articles by Toto Sudargo
Total Records ( 7 ) for Toto Sudargo
  Agus Wijanarka , Toto Sudargo , Eni Harmayani and Yustinus Marsono
  Background: Gayam (Inocarfus fagifer Forst.), a native plant of Indonesia has a good potential as a source of flour. Currently, gayam flour is made by conventional processing with poor quality. Objective: The study was to evaluate the effect of pre-gelatinization treatment on physicochemical and functional properties of gayam flour. Methodology: Pre-gelatinized gayam flour was prepared from unpeeled gayam seed by boiling at 100°C for 15, 30 or 45 min, followed by peeling, slicing, drying, grinding and sieving through a 60 mesh. Results: The pre-gelatinization treatment decreased the starch and amylose content, while moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates and dietary fiber content did not differ significantly. The longer pre-gelatinization time led to the higher of ΔE values and whiteness index, whereas pre-gelatinization for 45 min produced the highest ΔE values and whiteness index. Scanning electron microscopy showed the granules of the pre-gelatinized gayam flour were oval, rough surface, bigger and heterogenous size, while native flour was spherical, smooth surface, smaller and homogeneous size. The pre-gelatinization treatment increased water holding capacity and swelling power but decreased oil holding capacity and solubility. Pasting temperature and setback viscosity of pre-gelatinized gayam flour increased as the pre-gelatinization time increased but it had no effect on the peak, trough, breakdown and final viscosity. Conclusion: The significant differences in physicochemical and functional properties were observed among the pre-gelatinized gayam flours with respect to starch, amylose content, color, microstructure, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity and pasting properties. The pre-gelatinization treatment of gayam seed increased the whiteness index, water holding capacity and swelling power.
  Toto Sudargo , Fatma Zuhrotun Nisa , Siti Helmiyati , Rio Jati Kusuma , Tonny Arjuna and R. Dianandha Septiana
  Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Indonesia is still high. Iron fortification in food may contribute to addressing iron deficiency anemia. This study was conducted to determine the effect of NaFeEDTA fortification on iron levels in tempeh and some organoleptic properties of fortified tempeh (TemFe), as well as to determine the effect of TemFe in hemoglobin levels and the bioavailability of iron on Wistar rats anemia. This study is divided into two phases, so there are two research design. The first phase is purely experimental with completely randomized design. The second phase is quasi experimental with pre and post control group design. Fortification of tempeh with NaFeEDTA significantly increased the iron levels in tempeh (p<0.05). The organoleptic test showed that there is no significantly difference either tempeh nor TemFe (p>0.05). There are significantly differences in hemoglobin levels in tempeh and TemFe administration at a dose of 24 ppm compared with FeSO4 with same dose (p<0.05). The relative bioavailability (RBV) value for TemFe and tempeh was 100.10 and 33.65%, respectively. The fortification of NaFeEDTA in tempeh can increase iron levels and did not alter the organoleptic properties. There is a significant increase of hemoglobin levels in anemic groups of Wistar rats that received TemFe with dose of 24 ppm. The bioavailability due to iron fortification in TemFe is higher than that of the tempeh and FeSO4 as a gold standard.
  Toto Sudargo , Rio Jati Kusuma , Tonny Arjuna , Rasita Amelia Hasnawati , Dianandha Septiana Rubi and Abdul Rohman
  In Indonesia, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is still high. Iron fortification in food using sodium ferry EDTA (NaFeEDTA) potentially reduce the incidence of iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficient anemia was induced in female Wistar rats by feeding low iron (Fe) diet and was randomly divided into ten groups where one group was fed normal diet which serves as control group. Every treatment group will receive FeSO4, tempe and iron-fortified tempe (temFe) with iron dosage of 6, 12 and 24 ppm respectively for 17 days. Blood was drawn for serum iron (SI) and serum ferritin (SF) measurement. After treatment, temFe 24 ppm group has the highest SI and the highest SI changed compared with other treatment groups although no significant different (p>0.05) was observed between temFe 24 ppm group and FeSO4 24 ppm group for SI (139.36±1.58 vs 134.10±2.73 μg/dL) and SI changed (89.40±2.78 vs 84.47±2.41 μg/dL). SF was increased in all treatment diet with the highest was found in FeSO4 24 ppm group (73.25±3.16 ng/mL). However, SF level wasn’t significantly different between the FeSO4 24 ppm, tempe 24 ppm and temFe 24 ppm and group (p>0.05). Iron fortification in tempe with NaFeEDTA will restore both SI and SF in iron deficiency anemia.
  Desty Ervira Puspaningtyas , Toto Sudargo and Arta Farmawati
  Athletes receive training to improve physiology functions that can improve VO2 max, but training intensively leads to oxidative stress. Maltodextrin and vitamin C are nutrient which can suppress increasing of malondialdehyde (MDA) a marker of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to assess effect of maltodextrin and vitamin C combination drink on MDA level in soccer athletes. Type of this study was experimental with same subject design. The study was conducted from January until June 2014 at Culinary Laboratory Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Stadium of Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta (UNY) and Laboratory of Biochemistry UGM. Subjects of this study were 14 soccer athletes coming from UNY. Every subject had to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria and was choosen by purposive sampling. In the first treatment subjects received maltodextrin and vitamin C combination drink. After six days wash out period, subjects received 300 mL plain water. Drinks were given 30 min before and five minutes after VO2 max test continued by physical exercise. Malondialdehyde was measured using thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method and was performed in 30 min after exercise. Malondialdehyde level, when athletes consume maltodextrin and vitamin C combination drink, was significantly lower than malondialdehyde level when athletes consume plain water (p = 0.0003). Maltodextrin and vitamin C combination drink is more effective to reduce malondialdehyde than plain water.
  Sylva Salma , Toto Sudargo and Neni Trilusiana Rahmawati
  The prevalence of obesity in women is increasing more than that in men. The basal metabolic rate, calculated as basal energy expenditure (BEE), is the main determinant of energy balance and weight change. However, the correlation between BEE and obesity is polemical. The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between body fat percentage (BFP) and basal energy expenditure (BEE) among 40-60 year-old Javanese women in Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A cross-sectional study of 123 Javanese women was conducted. The anthropometric data of the subjects (hip circumference, suprailiac skinfold, body mass index for BFP, weight and height for BEE) were calculated using predictive equations. The data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlations. The prevalence of obesity in the subjects, measured as high BFP, was 84.6%. The means of both BFP and BEE were higher than normal, i.e., 31.2% (SD 6.5) and 1318.6 Cal (SD 97.3), respectively. The result found that there was a significant correlation between BFP and BEE (r = 0.929, p<0.001). The result suggested that high BFP is strongly related to high BEE. It can be concluded that obese individuals have higher basal metabolic rates and BEE values than normal-weight individuals.
  Harry Freitag Luglio , Fatma Zuhrotun` Nisa , Mirza Hapsari Sakti Titis Penggalih , Siti Helmyati , Lily Arsanti , Siti Budi Utami , Intan Esa Putri , Mutiara Tirta , Susetyowati , Emy Huriyati and Toto Sudargo
  Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) has an important role in defining trend of obesity and it is believed that rich people of poor countries who live in urban areas show high rate of obesity. However, there is a controversy regarding the role of socioeconomic factors on overweight and obesity of people living in rural areas. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of socioeconomic factors on the prevalence of obesity in women living in Raas and Sapudi islands that represents Indonesian rural areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 376 housewives, living in remote Indonesian islands (Raas and Sapudi), took part in this cross sectional study. In this study, nutritional status measurements, interviews and observations done by trained enumerators. A student’s t-test was used to compare differences of socioeconomic factors among women with and without overweight/obesity. Results: Distance to the food source and expenses to buy food were related to overweight/obesity (p<0.05). Additionally, overweight/obese women were married at a younger age compared to those women who were not overweight (16±3 yo vs. 17±6 yo, p = 0.008). Economic status, such as monthly income and possession of the farm or ranch was not associated with overweight/obesity. However, women who work outside home were less likely to become overweight/obese (OR: 0.321; p = 0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity in women living in those remote islands was at an alarming rate and socioeconomic factors also have an important role in the prevalence of obesity.
  Mirza Hapsari Sakti Titis Penggalih , Mohammad Juffrie , Toto Sudargo and Zaenal Muttaqien Sofro
  Background and Objective: Factors that influence athletes’ physical performance include somatic factors, training adaptation, nutrition, cigarette, alcohol and caffeine consumption habits and psychological factors. As one of the elements that affect an athlete’s performance, nutrition is often overlooked by athletes, trainers and stakeholders in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the relationship between nutritional status, exercise and cigarette, alcohol and caffeine consumption habits and youth soccer athletes’ performance. Methods: This observational study used a longitudinal cohort design. Subjects were observed for a 4 months period. A total of 131 youth soccer athletes participated in the study. Bivariate analysis was used to determine the relationship between all the predictor variables and the athletes’ performance using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression tests. Results: Anthropometric measurements, biochemical, clinical, food and fluid intake factors were found to be significantly related to maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) (p<0.05). Anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, food and fluid intake factors had an effect on VO2 max: r = 0.552, r = 0.215, r = 0.424 and r = 0.553, respectively. The correlations across all variables were significant (p = 0.000), with a value of r = 0.698, if smoking habits, alcohol consumption, caffeine and exercise factors were neglected. The r-value increased to r = 0.706 for the following variables, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and caffeine consumption. The r-value increased to r = 0.725 by adding the exercise factor. Furthermore, it was found that variable body mass index (BMI) for age, ectomorph body type, heart rate, fluid intake and exercise were the main factors affecting VO2 max (p<0.05). Conclusion: Nutritional factors (69.8%) were found to have the greatest impact on an athlete’s performance. The nutritional factors that had the greatest impact on performance are: BMI for age, ectomorph body type, heart rate and fluid intake without ignoring the exercise factor. Exercise and nutritional factors were found to have a 72.5% impact on an athlete’s performance.
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