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Articles by Toshihiko Masui
Total Records ( 2 ) for Toshihiko Masui
  Sherman Robinson , Hans van Meijl , Dirk Willenbockel , Hugo Valin , Shinichiro Fujimori , Toshihiko Masui , Ron Sands , Marshall Wise , Katherine Calvin , Petr Havlik , Daniel Mason d`Croz , Andrzej Tabeau , Aikaterini Kavallari , Christoph Schmitz , Jan Philipp Dietrich and Martin von Lampe
  This article compares the theoretical and functional specification of production in partial equilibrium (PE) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models of the global agricultural and food system included in the AgMIP model comparison study. The two model families differ in their scope—partial versus economy-wide—and in how they represent technology and the behavior of supply and demand in markets. The CGE models are “deep” structural models in that they explicitly solve the maximization problem of consumers and producers, assuming utility maximization and profit maximization with production/cost functions that include all factor inputs. The PE models divide into two groups on the supply side: (1) “shallow” structural models, which essentially specify area/yield supply functions with no explicit maximization behavior, and (2) “deep” structural models that provide a detailed activity-analysis specification of technology and explicit optimizing behavior by producers. While the models vary in their specifications of technology, both within and between the PE and CGE families, we consider two stylized theoretical models to compare the behavior of crop yields and supply functions in CGE models with their behavior in shallow structural PE models. We find that the theoretical responsiveness of supply to changes in prices can be similar, depending on parameter choices that define the behavior of implicit supply functions over the domain of applicability defined by the common scenarios used in the AgMIP comparisons. In practice, however, the applied models are more complex and differ in their empirical sensitivity to variations in specification—comparability of results given parameter choices is an empirical question. To illustrate the issues, sensitivity analysis is done with one global CGE model, MAGNET, to indicate how the results vary with different specification of technical change, and how they compare with the results from PE models.
  Toshihiko Masui , Galvin H. Swift , Michael A. Hale , David M. Meredith , Jane E. Johnson and Raymond J. MacDonald
  The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor PTF1a is critical to the development of the embryonic pancreas. It is required early for the formation of the undifferentiated tubular epithelium of the nascent pancreatic rudiment and then becomes restricted to the differentiating acinar cells, where it directs the transcriptional activation of the secretory digestive enzyme genes. Here we report that the complex temporal and spatial expression of Ptf1a is controlled by at least three separable gene-flanking regions. A 14.8-kb control domain immediately downstream of the last Ptf1a exon is highly conserved among mammals and directs expression in the dorsal part of the spinal cord but has very little activity in the embryonic or neonatal pancreas. A 13.4-kb proximal promoter domain initiates limited expression in cells that begin the acinar differentiation program. The activity of the proximal promoter domain is complemented by an adjacent 2.3-kb autoregulatory enhancer that is able to activate a heterologous minimal promoter with high-level penetrance in the pancreases of transgenic mice. During embryonic development, the enhancer initiates expression in the early precursor epithelium and then superinduces expression in acinar cells at the onset of their development. The enhancer contains two evolutionarily conserved binding sites for the active form of PTF1a, a trimeric complex composed of PTF1a, one of the common bHLH E proteins, and either RBPJ or RBPJL. The two sites are essential for acinar cell-specific transcription in transfected cell lines and mice. In mature acinar cells, the enhancer and PTF1a establish an autoregulatory loop that reinforces and maintains Ptf1a expression. Indeed, the trimeric PTF1 complex forms dual autoregulatory loops with the Ptf1a and Rbpjl genes that may maintain the stable phenotype of pancreatic acinar cells.
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