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Articles by Tee Bee Heoh
Total Records ( 2 ) for Tee Bee Heoh
  Abdul Rahim Anuar , Kah Joh Goh , Tee Bee Heoh and Osumanu Haruna Ahmed
  One of the major challenges in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations today is proper interpretation of yield maps for site-specific management and identification and understanding of the causal factors influencing the variability of oil palm yields. A study was conducted to examine the structural yield variation in order to assess the spatial and temporal yield trends so as to interpret multi-year yield maps of oil palm as influenced by the long-term N fertilizer applications in the palm circle in fertilizer response trial in Sabah, Malaysia. Two clusters of palms were selected for the study; with and without N fertilizer applications for the past 10 years. Fresh fruit bunch (ffb) yields were recorded and summarized on an annual basis. Geostatistical analysis was used to characterize the spatial structure of the semivariogram while point kriging was used to interpolate the ffb yields at unsampled locations. A classified management zone map was developed based on the spatial and temporal stability yield maps from 1992-1999. Semivariance analysis revealed that the yield variations between plots and within plots could be distinguished from the structural semivariogram. The variability between plots was relatively higher compared with within plots. The maximum range of the semivariance of both fertilizer treatments was about 6-palm distance which corresponded well to the experimental plot size of 30 (5x6) palms. It was also observed that the structure of the semivariogram was governed by the sampling pattern and the experimental plot size. The annual yield maps suggested that the application of N could sustain ffb yields above 30 t ha-1 year-1 whereas its removal could result in a drastic decline in ffb yields after 1992. Long-term N fertilizer applications reduced the annual ffb yield fluctuations to between 35 and 45% based on the coefficient of variations between years obtained from individual palms. The results further demonstrate the potential of integrating spatial and temporal stability of ffb yields from multi-year yield data to classify management zones for site-specific oil palm management particularly for fertilizer application. However, the potential of misinterpretation of yield maps can be high if limited data are available. Further work is necessary to ascertain the minimum number of palms and years required for the generation of meaningful yield maps and management zones.
  Abdul Rahim Anuar , Kah Joh Goh , Tee Bee Heoh and Osumanu Haruna Ahmed
  The identification and understanding of soil factors influencing yield variability of oil palm enable their efficient management. Soil samples were therefore collected from a fertilizer response trial on oil palm to study the spatial inorganic N distribution and some selected soil chemical properties as affected by long-term N fertilizer applications. The experiment was conducted on mature oil palms grown on Kumansi family (Typic Paleudults) soil in Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia. The soil samples were taken from 2 areas; with and without N treatments for 8 years. They were analyzed for total N, NH4+-N, NO3--N, exchangeable K, and pH. Semivariance analysis was used to characterize the spatial variance of soil NH4+-N and NO3--N while point kriging method was used to illustrate their spatial distributions. Results showed that application of N in the palm circle increased soil NH4+-N above 150 mg kg-1 at 0 to 15 cm depth. In unmanured plot, the NH4+-N contents were similar in the different sites within a palm area although the frond heap area tended to have higher NH4+-N probably due to the N return from the decaying cut fronds. The coefficient of variations for both soil NH4+-N and NO3--N exceeded 30% even within each microsite of palm circle, interrow, frond heaps, and harvesting path. Semivariance analysis showed that the maximum range of soil NH4+-N could be reached at 10 m and 90 m in areas with and without N respectively, indicating that the application of N fertilizer reduced its spatial variability in mature oil palm agroecosystem. The kriged soil map showed localized spots of high NH4+-N content, which corresponded to the palm circles where N fertilizer was applied. Gradual changes in soil fertility were observed in area without N, moving from northern to southern portion of the field. Long-term applications of N caused significant downward movement of NH4+-N and NO3--N to the lower soil depth. They also decreased the soil pH from 4.2 to 3.7, and caused leaching of K to the lower depth. Fertilizer should be broadcast in the interrow in mature oil palm agroecosystem to reduce spatial N variation and other detrimental effects.
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