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Articles by T.P. Lanyasunya
Total Records ( 10 ) for T.P. Lanyasunya
  T.P. Lanyasunya , H. Wang Rong , E.A. Mukisira and N.K. Kibitok
  This study was conducted in Naivasha, Kenya over a period of 15 weeks to determine the effect of manure or fertilizer application on height of Columbus grass (Sorghum almum). After field preparation, representative soil samples were taken for mineral profiling. Sixty plots of 2x2 sq. m size were then demarcated and further divided into 5 similar units comprising of 4 blocks of 3 plots each. The plots in each block were independently allotted to 3 treatments in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design. Treatments were T1-control (without fertilization), T2 and T3 received dry beef cattle manure and inorganic fertilizer, respectively. All the 4 blocks (weed free) in each of the five (randomly distributed) units were planted on the same day. Harvesting was done at 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 weeks in a sequential manner starting with unit 1 to 5. All the blocks in each unit were harvested on the same day (at 5 cm height). Results showed that manure or fertilizer application had significant (p<0.0001; r2 = 0.9769) effect on height of Sorghum almum. ANOVA revealed high effect of cutting interval (p<0.0001) and cutting-treatment interaction (p<0.001). At 6 weeks the mean height in T2 (p<0.01) and T3 (p<0.001) were 12.74 and 19.05% higher than in T1. At 14 weeks T2 (p<0.01) and T3 (p<0.01) recorded 12.1 and 12.5% higher height than T1. At the same age however T2 and T3 were not different (p>0.05). The observed increases in the grass height between 6 and 14 weeks represented growth rate of 3.2, 3.6 and 3.5 cm d 1 for the 3 treatments respectively. Results further showed that height growth rates in T1, T2 and T3 were higher between 6 and 10 weeks (3.83, 3.77 and 3.95 cm d 1) compared to that recorded between 10 and 14 weeks (2.58, 3.4 and 3.12 cm d 1). The results also showed that height was strongly correlated with concentration of essential nutrients in the plant tissue. Gauging from the results of this study, availability and the known long-term residual effect, this study concluded that though both manure and fertilizer had significant effect on height, manure would be the best cost effective option for enhancing Sorghum almum growth rate and therefore yield on smallholder farms in Kenya.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , H.R. Wang , W.O. Ayako and D.M. Kuria
  This study was conducted in Kenya over 15 weeks to determine the effect of manure or fertilizer application on quality of Vicia villosa Roth. After field preparation, 60 plots of 2x2 m2 size were then demarcated and divided into 5 similar units comprising of 4 blocks of 3 plots each and independently allotted to 3 treatments in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design. Treatments were: T1-control (No fertilizer), T2 and T3 received beef cattle manure and fertilizer, respectively. All units were planted on the same day and harvested at 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 weeks, in a sequential manner, starting with unit 1-5. All the blocks in each unit were harvested on the same day and the entire freshly harvested materials (per plot) were weighed. Representative grab samples were collected, chopped to pieces of 2 cm length, mixed and 2 composite samples (500 g each) were then taken for dry matter determination and chemical analysis following standard procedures. Yield of nutrients was also determined. Collected data was stored in MS-Excel and analyzed using SAS. From the results it was observed that, NDF in T1, T2 and T3 increased by 19.7, 14.1 and 19.2% between 6 and 14 weeks, respectively. ANOVA showed that treatment had effect on DMY (r2 = 0.7341; p< 0.01) at 14 weeks but not on CPY (r2 = 0.3705; p>0.05). Mean ME concentration in the forage was not influenced by either manure or fertilizer application. Strong correlation between nutrients and V. villosa age at harvest was observed. It was therefore concluded that, though fertilization had no effect on nutrient content, it improved their overall yield.
  H.H. Musa , B.C. Li , G.H. Chen , T.P. Lanyasunya , Q. Xu and W.B. Bao
  Traditional karyotyping is invented in animal research for several decades depend on the analysis of characteristic banding patterns along the length of chromosome. In the present study chicken metaphase chromosomes were obtained by peripheral blood lymphocyte culture techniques, G-band patterns were obtained with trypsin and Giemsa, C-band patterns were treated with barium and the nuclear organizer regions (NORs) were identified by silver staining. All species studied presented a diploid number of 78 chromosomes, with 10 pairs of macro chromosomes including the sex chromosome and 29 pairs of micro chromosomes. G-band patterns were found quite different between breeds. The dark stained of C-band was observed on micro chromosome and W chromosome. Karyotype resemblance near coefficient was possible for breeds clustering. The position of centromers, relative length, arm ratio and the evolutionary distance of chicken breeds was estimated. The application of chromosome karyotype and banding techniques was used to study the origin, evolution and relationship of species, also used for gene location and sex determination. While, in the Medical field was used to identify genetic disease. The techniques was consider as a base for further molecular research, for example FISH.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , Wang H. Rong , S.A. Abdulrazak , P.K. Kaburu , J.O. Makori , T.A. Onyango and D.M. Mwangi
  Productivity of ruminant animals during the dry season, on smallholder farms in Kenya, is constraint by low availability and poor quality of the feeds (crop residues). The current study was conducted on smallholder farms in Nakuru, Koibatek and Trans Nzoia Districts in 2003 over 2-year period preceded by a 6 - week feed survey. The objective of the feed survey was to inventorize feed resources available on smallholder resource - poor farms and delineate factors limiting their optimization for enhanced dairy production. Other farm bio-data including livestock population (ruminants and poultry) and structure per farm were also collected. This paper confines its discussion on both qualitative and quantitative information gathered during the survey with special focus on poultry manure vis a vis litter and compares the results with reports other research works. During the survey, composite samples of feed resources being utilized at farm level (including poultry manure) were collected for dry matter (DM) determination and proximate analysis at the National Animal Husbandry Research Centre (NAHRC/Naivasha/Kenya. Results obtained, strongly indicated that, poultry manure has great potential for use during the dry season as a source of rumen degradable protein or non-protein nitrogen (NPN) in ruminant nutrition. Though heterogeneity was observed in the many reports reviewed and compared with the current study, the general consensus was that poultry manure/litter contains high level of crude protein (15 to 38%), fiber (11 - 52%), and rich in minerals (Ca: 0.81 - 6.13%; P: 0.56 - 3.92; K: 0.73 - 5.17), dry matter (61 - 95%). It is because of these nutrients that poultry manure has been deliberately mixed into ruminant livestock diets. Its Organic matter digestibility (OMD) ranges from 60 to 65, crude protein (CP) - 69.9, crude fibre (CF) - 29.9 and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) - 71.4%. Past research studies recorded in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and IVOMD of 76.1 and 72.7%, respectively. Other reports also showed that, beef cattle fed poultry manure based diets recorded body weight gains ranging from 0.91 to 1.31 kg/d. Dairy goats supplemented with poultry manure registered 10.15% higher milk production compared to those on barley based diets (621 and 558 kg, respectively). Based on the available research information, it is conclude in this study that poultry manure can be successfully included in ruminant diets. The constraint, as revealed in the current study is that smallholder farmers do not own large chicken flock sizes (majority own less 30 birds) to guarantee sufficient supply of manure for ruminant feeding. It is this particular factor that is being attributed to the low poultry manure reported in the current study (regular users - 19%; occasional users - 17% and none users - 64%). Where available, poultry manure is very cheap. Since it is cheaply available (not readily) at farm level, poultry manure offers a cost effective option for meeting dairy cattle protein requirements. However, some precaution must be taken to minimize nitrogen loss (which occurs in the form of NH3, N2O and N2) and accumulation of pathogens (Salmonella and E. coli).
  T.P. Lanyasunya , Hongrong Wang , E.A. Mukisira , Mengzhi Wang , D.M. Kuria , Zhang Jie and W.O. Ayako
  Effect of forage type and chemical composition on vigor of rumen microbial community was investigated in vitro. Dry herbage samples used as culture media substrates were obtained from Sorghum almum, Vicia villosa and Commelina benghalensis established and harvested at 6, 10 and 14 weeks. Chemical analyses and constitution of incubation buffer solutions were done following standard procedures. Rumen liquor was obtained from 3 mature male goats (LW: 232 kg) fitted with rumen cannulae, housed in a well-ventilated group pen and fed a basal diet of fresh grass and supplemented with Lucerne hay. Bottles (225 mL capacity) containing 120 mL of the liquor-buffer mixture (1:2 v/v) and 1.2 g of substrate (30:70 soluble starch:dry forage samples milled to pass 1mm sieve) were incubated (39C) under anaerobic condition and microbial culture harvested after 24 h and determined. Data was analyzed using SAS. As expected, DM and fibre content increased whereas CP and EE content decreased with advancing forage maturity. It was noted that, culture media based on herbage harvested young had higher bacteria and protozoal biomass compared to those based on older herbage. The overall mean for bacterial and protozoal biomass in Sorghum almum, Vicia villosa and Commelina benghalensis based media were 0.325, 0.3782 and 0.3712 mg mL 1 and 0.2221, 0.2344 and 0.2539 mg mL 1, respectively. Results therefore indicate that forage type and chemical composition had significant effect on the vigor of rumen microbial community.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , Hongrong Wang , E.A. Mukisira , F.B. Lukibisi , D.M. Kuria and N.K. Kibitok
  This study was conducted in Naivasha, Kenya over a period of 15 weeks to determine the effect of manure and fertilizer application on yield of Columbus grass (Sorghum almum). After field preparation, 60 plots of 22 m2 size were demarcated and further divided into 5 similar units comprising of 4 blocks of 3 plots each (N = 12). The plots in each block were independently allotted to 3 treatments in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design. Treatments were T1-control (with nether manure nor fertilizer), T2 and T3 received manure and inorganic fertilizer, respectively. All the 4 blocks (weed free) in each of the five (randomly distributed) units were planted on the same day and harvesting at 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 weeks in a sequential manner starting with unit 1-5. All the blocks in each unit were harvested on the same day (at 5 cm height) and the entire freshly harvested materials, per plot, were weighed. Representative grab samples were collected, chopped to pieces of 2 cm length, mixed and 2 composite samples (500 g each) were taken for Dry Matter (DM) determination and chemical analyses. DM, Ash and Crude Protein (CP) were determined according the standard procedures. Fresh Matter Yield (FMY), DM Yield (DMY), Organic Matter Yield (OMY) and Crude Protein Yield (CPY) per 4m2 were determined and translated to equivalent ha. Collected data was stored in MS-Excel and analyzed using SAS. Results showed that, at the age of 6 weeks, FMY and DMY (ton ha 1) in T3 (8.8 and 1.2, respectively) were 66.1 and 71.4% higher (p< 0.0001) than T1 (5.3 and 0.7). It was also observed that, T2 (6.9 and 0.9) and T1 were also different (p< 0.05) at this age. At the age of 14 weeks T1, T2 and T3 recorded 62.5, 77.2 and 85.6 ton FMY ha 1 and 13.5, 17.1 and 19.9 ton DMY ha 1, respectively. A similar trend was observed with OMY and CPY, with T2 and T3 (13.9 and 16.1 ton DM ha 1, respectively) registering 27.5 and 47.7% higher OMY than T1. The results also showed strong correlation of yield parameters studied. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that, treatment had strong effect on yield. It was therefore concluded that manure or fertilizer application substantially increased the yield of Sorghum almum, with animal manure being the most ideal cost effective option for smallholder resource-poor farmers in Kenya.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , H.H. Musa , Z.P. Yang , D.M. Mekki and E.A. Mukisira
  The relationship between nutrition and reproduction is a topic of increasing importance. Many research reports have clearly demonstrated that energy, protein and minerals intake are the most important nutritional factors affecting reproduction and therefore milk production in dairy farms. This is particularly evident on smallholder farms in the tropics where feed is often inadequate. On these farms, voluntary feed intake in relation to the feed required for maintenance is the most important factor determining the animal`s body condition. Many of the dairy animals on smallholder farms cannot build sufficient body reserves (particularly energy and protein) due to lack of adequate feed. As a direct consequence of feed inadequacy, dairy stock on most smallholder resource-poor farms are often in poor body condition (emaciated). Conception rate and calving intervals have been shown to be highly correlated, to by weight and body condition. The study revealed that animals with low body weights showed low conception rate and long calving interval. Energy and protein have shown to maintain essential levels of blood cholesterol and improve pregnancy from 42 to 72% respectively. Correlation of reproductive hormone cycle, calf and lamb birth rates, weaning rates, lactation length and yield with plane of nutrition, have been adequately illustrated. This is evidenced by the current high incidences of dairy cow infertility on smallholder farms in Kenya. Based on the literature reviewed, the current study concluded that poor nutrition is a major contributor to the current poor reproductive performance of dairy cows on smallholder farms. Poor nutrition is also largely incriminated for predisposing animals to diseases leading to high mortality and morbidity rates on these farms. It is therefore perceived that improvement of ruminant livestock diets on smallholder farms will greatly improve reproductive performance and therefore herd productivity on smallholder farms. In the long run, this will also impact positively on the economic status of the household.
  H.H. Musa , A.H. Suleiman , T.P. Lanyasunya , O. Olowofeso and D.M. Mekki
  eventeen male Ostrich chicks (Ostruiothio, Camelus camelus) aged one month old were brought from Radom National Park to the research farm of University of Nyala, both in Sudan, and reared indoor, concentrate rations were formulated and provided ad-libitum and water equally supplied. During the study period, chick behaviour were observed, body weight gained (g/day), feed intake (g/day), water consumption (liter/day) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were found to be 178.64, 447.91, 4.18 and 2.39, respectively. Rapid growth rate during the age of 2 to 4 months resulted to leg deformation which eventually leads to the death of some chicks with mortality rate 41.20% at the end of the experiment. The body measurements at different ages of chicks were highly significant (P< 0.05). There were high positive correlations between live weight and other parameters estimated (shank diameter and length, nick diameter and length, wing length, body length, heart girth and bird high).
  T.P. Lanyasunya , L.W. Wamae , H.H. Musa , O. Olowofeso and I.K. Lokwaleput
  Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that thrive in warm humid environments. Because Kenyan climate is favourable for growth of mycotoxins causing moulds, the threat of mycotoxin related livestock and human poisoning is real and of major concern. This threat is made even more palpable by the fact that, staple diets in many Kenyan households are based on crops such as maize, which are highly susceptible to mycotoxins contamination. The objective of the current study was to highlight the existing but grossly ignored danger of mycotoxin contamination of dairy feeds possibly leading to animal and human poisoning. During the study, qualitative and quantitave information were obtained through extensive review of scientific articles, magazines and books touching on this subject. Consultations were also held with resource persons (Toxicologists) to help validate some of the assertions made by various authors. A very clear illustrated facts, as revealed by the current study are that, aflatoxin is one of the most widely occurring and dangerous of all mycotoxins known. The term aflatoxin refers to a closely related group of metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive agents. Four different aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 and G2, have been identified with B1 being the most toxic. Their contamination of agricultural feed grains poses a serious threat worldwide. Although occurrence and magnitude of mycotoxin contamination varies with geographical and seasonal factors and also with the conditions under which a food or feed crop is grown, harvested, and stored, those grown under tropical and subtropical conditions are more prone to contamination than those in temperate regions due to favourable humidity and temperature levels for mould growth (10 - 40oC, pH range of 4 - 8 and above 70% equilibrium relative humidity). Aflatoxin B1 is potent when it contaminates food grains. This potency was illustrated by an outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in Kenya (January - July 2004). This outbreak resulted in 125 recognized deaths and hospitalization of over 300 others across various districts (Makueni: N = 148; Kitui: 101; Machakos: 19; Thika: 12 and Kenyatta National Hospital: 37). Of 342 samples tested, a total of 182 (53.2%) had >20 ppb of aflatoxin. In addition, a substantial percentage of samples from each district had aflatoxin levels >1,000 ppb: Makueni (12.1%), Kitui (9.6%), Thika (3.9%), and Machakos (2.9%). Livestock get poisoned when they consume contaminated feeds. Virtually all feeds are susceptible so long as conditions permit mould colonization. Mouldy protein supplements, poultry manure, cereal grains and their by-products are the primary sources of mycotoxins found in homemade dairy concentrates on smallholder farms. Aflatoxin M1 is metabolic breakdown product of aflatoxin B1 and can appear in the milk of lactating cows consuming significant quantities of aflatoxin B1 emanating from mouldy feedstuffs. When the level of M1 appearing in milk and other dairy products is more than 20 ppb (concentration accepted by Kenya authorities), then it becomes a food safety hazard. Control of mycotoxins in dairy diets on smallholder farms would reduce the likelihood of livestock poisoning and concentration of mycotoxin residues in milk and other animal products destined for human consumption.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , Wang , H. Rong , S.A. Abdulrazak and E.A. Mukisira
  Inadequate feeding and high disease prevalence are considered as the major setback to dairy production on smallholder farms in Kenya. Under such circumstances, heavy losses of young calves occur. This is the situation presently on these farms. The current study was conducted in Bahati division of Nakuru district over a period of 3 years. Out of 120 smallholder farmers randomly visited and interviewed, 60 of them were selected to participate in the trial, based on whether they have dairy cattle and willing to collaborate. The selected farmers were trained on data recording and provided with a heart-girth measuring tape, a spring balance (25 kg), a 10-litre plastic bucket (for feed weighing), a 1-litre graduated jug (for measuring milk) and a record book. They were then divided into two groups (Control and test) of 30 each. Control group was asked to continue with their ordinary calf management, where supplementation was not offered. Test farmers were asked to strictly follow the research calf-feeding schedule where Napier grass cv Bana was fed as a basal diet and supplemented with protein rich forages (Lucernne; Sweet potato vines cv Munsinya; Desmodium cv Green leaf and fodder shrubs (Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban). Parameters of study were growth rate, mortality, morbidity and dynamics. The collected data was stored in MS-excel and later subjected to appropriate statistical models (SAS) to established the calf performance difference between the 2 farm groups and livestock production systems. The results showed that calves in test farms performed better (370 g/d) compared to those in control farms (307 g/d)(P< 0.01). The study further revealed that calves supplemented with an assortment of protein rich forages showed a rapid body weight gain (375 and 417 g/d) compared to those offered SPV as a sole protein supplement (345 g/d) (P< 0.05). It was further observed that the overall female calf mortality in zero grazing test farms was low (6%) compared to semi-zero and free grazing test farms (15 and 20%, respectively)(P< 0.05). In the same farms mortality of male and female calves was different (P< 0.05). Mortality for male calves was observed to be higher (Test-zero: Male – 13%; Female – 6%; Control-zero: Male – 11% and Female 9%). The same trend was observed across the test and control farms in semi-zero and free grazing systems. On calf dynamics, off-take for male (33 – 78%) calves was observed to be much higher that for female calves (6 – 33%)(P< 0.001). It was therefore concluded that protein supplementation, using farm grown forages improves performance of dairy calves on smallholder farms. The authors recommend that resource-poor farmers emphasize on cultivation of forage legumes so as to have sufficient protein rich diets for young dairy calves.
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