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Articles by T.E. Lawal
Total Records ( 4 ) for T.E. Lawal
  T.E. Lawal , E.A. Iyayi , B.A. Adeniyi and O.A. Adaramoye
  Enzymes were extracted from four fungi: Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Rhizopus stolonifer and Mucor mucedo. The purified enzyme extracts were used to degrade Groundnut Pod (GNP) in solid state. Undegraded GNP-, degraded GNP- and Roxazyme G2G-based diets were fed to starter and finisher broilers at the rates 70 and 100 g kg-1 of diet, respectively. There was a production of a broad spectrum of enzymes from the 4 fungi. Treatment of the GNP with the fungal enzyme extracts caused a more significant (p<0.05) reduction in the crude fibre and complex carbohydrate fractions and an increase in the crude protein, metabolizable energy and phosphorus in the GNP compared to the undegraded and Roxazyme treated GNP. The amounts of glucose, fructose, galactose and sucrose in the GNP were significantly (p<0.05) increased on biodegradation with the fungal enzyme extracts. Enzyme extracts from M. mucedo and R. stolonifer were more superior in this regard compared to extracts from the other fungi. Diets containing the degraded GNP resulted in significantly (p<0.05) reduced viscosity, better apparent nutrient digestibility and performance in broilers compared to the other diets. Results suggest the possibility of production of a multienzyme complex from some common tropical fungi. These enzyme complexes are more effective in biodegrading complex carbohydrates of by-products like GNP than Roxazyme which is specific for cereal based diets.
  T.E. Lawal , E.A. Iyayi , B.A. Adeniyi and O.A. Adaramoye
  Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) was used as a substrate to elicit the production of polysaccharidases from Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Rhizopus stolonifer and Mucor mucedo. The extracted enzymes produced were purified and used to ferment PKC in solid state at the rate of 250 ml/kg of the material for 7 days. Unbiodegraded and enzyme degraded PKC were used to formulate broiler starter and finisher diets at the rates of 70 g kg-1 and 100 g kg-1, respectively. A 6th diet was formulated in which Roxazyme G2G, a commercial enzyme was used to supplement the unbiodegraded PKC at the recommended inclusion level of 0.15 g kg-1. A total of 360 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the 6 treatments of 6 replicates each with each replicates having 10 birds. Cellulose and hemicellulose were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in the biodegraded PKC compared with the unbiodegraded PKC and PKC supplemented with Roxazyme G2G. The level of soluble sugars increased in a similar trend. Crude protein, phosphorus and energy increased significantly (p<0.05) in the biodegraded PKC compared to that treated with Roxazyme G2G and the unbiodegraded PKC. Apparent digestibility of nutrients was significantly improved (p<0.05) in birds that received the diets based on the biodegraded PKC than those on the unbiodegraded PKC and Roxazyme G2G supplemented diets. Feed conversion and weight gain in birds were significantly (p<0.05) higher in birds on the diets based on the biodegraded PKC compared to those on diets based on the unbiodegraded PKC and Roxazyme supplemented diets. Results of the study showed that PKC can act as a substrate for the production of a multienzyme complex from the 4 fungi. The enzyme complexes so produced were more efficacious in breaking down the cellulose and hemicellulose in it compared to Roxazyme G2G which is an enzyme product specific for cereal-based diets.
  S.G. Ademola , O.O. Egbewande , T.E. Lawal , A.T. Isah and S.M. Kuranga
  The study examined effects of supplementing Roxazyme G® and Maxigrain® to wheat offal-, corn bran- and brewery dry grain-based diets on the performance, haematological parameters and economy of production in laying hens. Both enzymes were added to these 3 diets at 100 mg/kg, while control group was neither supplemented with Roxazyme G® nor Maxigrain®. The results showed that hens fed Roxazyme G® corn bran diets had the best feed conversion and maximum profit. Maxigrain® also significantly improved hen day production and egg weight of hens fed Brewery Dry Grain (BDG) than those fed Roxazyme G® BDG diet. Laying hens fed BDG diets had the lowest profits. Both enzymes failed to improve the performance and profits of hens fed Wheat Offal (WO) diet. Improvements in Red Blood Cells (RBC) for hens fed both enzyme supplemented diets were observed. Interactive effects of enzyme type and fibre source significantly (p<0.01) influence RBCs, PCV and white blood cells. The study revealed that Roxazyme G® and Maxigrain® should be added to respectively CB- and BDG- diets for improved laying performance. However, these enzymes failed to improve the laying performance of hens fed WO diet.
  S.G. Ademola , T.E. Lawal , O.O. Egbewande and G.O. Farinu
  Medicinal spices such as garlic and ginger contain chemical substances that could be used to enhance the value of food of animal origin. These substances such as organosulphur compounds of garlic and gingerone, shoagaols of ginger are responsible health benefits of these spices. The study investigated the addition of mixtures of garlic and ginger to diets of pullet chicks, growers and laying hens to evaluate beneficial effects on growth and egg production as well as their possible effects on lipid content of serum and yolk. Five diets were used for the study. Control diet was not supplemented with any of the mixtures. Four increasing levels of garlic (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%) were incorporated into diets for pullet chicks, growers and laying hens. Ginger supplements were also added to the diets at 0.5% and 0.75%. The results showed that the mixtures of garlic and ginger were beneficial by promoting final live weight of pullet growers, laying hens and also by lowering total cholesterol, triacylglycerol concentration in serum and yolk. Furthermore, the mixtures of garlic and ginger significantly (p<0.001) improved hen day production, egg weight and feed conversion. However, dietary inclusion of the mixtures significantly reduced shell weight and thickness. Significant (p<0.001) negative linear relationships were observed between dietary mixtures of garlic and ginger with parameters of serum and yolk lipids. In conclusion, the mixtures of garlic and ginger improved egg weight with lower cholesterol and triacylglycerol as well as better hen day production of laying hens. The results implied that the mixtures could benefit growth, laying performance and lowered yolk lipid content.
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