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Articles by T.C. Chen
Total Records ( 8 ) for T.C. Chen
  S.H. Wang , M.H. Chang and T.C. Chen
  Chicken wings were vacuum-packaged and cooked (sous vide) at 75 and 90°C until the internal temperature reached 73.8°C was reached. The cooked samples were stored at 2 and 7°C, separately. The TBA values, aerobic plate count, aerobic and anaerobic plate counts and Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force of the samples were evaluated weekly for 7 wk. The sous vide treatment chicken wings had lower TBA values, aerobic and anaerobic plate counts throughout the 7 wk of storage when compared with the control. The sous vide treatment did not affect the WB shear force of chicken wings. At 2°C, the sous vide cooked chicken wings had a shelf life of at least 7 wk. Results demonstrate that sous vide treatment was an effective method to prevent lipid oxidation during storage and enhance shelf life of chicken wing products.
  Y.C. Chen and T.C. Chen
  Sixty White Leghorn hens (57 wk of age) were divided randomly into three groups with two birds per cage. One group received the basal diet, the second group received the basal diet supplemented with 1% (w/w) oligofructose and the third group received 1% (w/w) inulin in the form of 1.3% of a partially purified chicory root extract(Raftifeed®IPE).Birds were allowed free access to feed and water during the 4 wk observation period. Supplementing oligofructose and inulin increased (P<0.05) the layer`s serum calcium levels at the end of experiment. Oligofructose and inulin dietary supplementation increased (P<0.05) eggshell weight percentage from the second week as compared with the control group; meanwhile overall eggshell weight showed 3.64 and 4.44% increases (P<0.05), respectively. Similarly, after 1 wk of supplementing diets with both prebiotics, eggshell strengths were increased (P<0.05) significantly. Supplementing with oligofructose or inulin increased (P<0.05) total ash, calcium, and phosphorus levels in the tibia. No effect (P>0.05) on the level of magnesium, potassium, copper, zinc or iron in the tibiae was observed among those treatments. In conclusion, dietary oligofructose and inulin can promote bird`s health and improve eggshell quality.
  Y.C. Chen , C. Nakthong and T.C. Chen
  Sixty White Leghorn hens (57 wk of age) were selected and divided randomly into three groups with two birds per cage. Twenty birds were assigned to each of the following diet treatments: 1) basal diet (control); 2) basal diet with 1.0% (w/w) of an oligofructose-type commercial prebiotic supplementation (Raftifeed®OPS); and 3) basal diet containing 1.0% (w/w) inulin, which was administered as 1.3% (w/w) of a semipurified chicory root extract (Raftifeed®IPE). The feeding trial lasted for 28 d. Oligofructose and inulin increased (P<0.05) weekly egg production by 13.35% and 10.73%, respectively as compared to the control. The rapidly fermented (cecum) oligofructose and the slowly fermented inulin also increased (P<0.05) cumulative weekly egg weight per bird by 12.50% and 10.96%, respectively, as compared to the control. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in average egg weight, feed consumption, or albumen quality during the extended storage among the treatments. Both prebiotics improved (P<0.05) the feed conversion ratio. No differences in the percentages of changes in live body weight (%) were recorded after a 4-wk feeding trial. Interestingly, both prebiotic supplementations elongated (P<0.05) small and large intestinal lengths. This concomitant increased absorption of capacity could be at the basis of the observations reported here. In conclusion, dietary oligofructose and inulin can increase (P<0.05) egg production and feed efficiency of layers without impairing egg quality.
  Y.C. Chen , C. Nakthong and T.C. Chen
  Supplementing layer diets with oligofructose (1.0% (w/w) Raftifeed®OPS) and 1.0% (w/w) inulin (in the form of 1.3% (w/w) Raftifeed®IPE) reduced (P<0.05) yolk cholesterol concentrations on average by 18.64% and 16.44%, respectively, when compared to the control. However, greater reductions in yolk cholesterol content were calculated. They were 20.68% and 22.39%, on average, for oligofructose and inulin, respectively. These prebiotics reduced (P<0.05) laying hen`s blood serum cholesterol by 17.75% and 16.23%, respectively. At the same time, oligofructose and inulin increased (P<0.05) cholesterol concentrations of the small intestinal (jejunum) contents and total cholesterol excretion from the fecal material in layers compared with those of the controls. In studies of the linear relations of cholesterol concentrations in each pair of yolk, serum, jejunum contents, and fecal materials, the results indicated that lowered concentrations of yolk cholesterol might be attributed to lowered serum cholesterol that results from a greater content of unabsorbable cholesterol in jejunum contents and more cholesterol excretion. Hence, supplementation of a basal laying hen diet with either oligofructose or inulin reduced yolk cholesterol and may offer a way to produce eggs with lowered yolk cholesterol.
  Y.C. Chen , C. Nakthong , T.C. Chen and R.K. Buddington
  When young, rapidly growing broiler birds are fed a diet supplemented with beta-fructans, there is increased activity of pancreatic amylase, but not lipase, and decreased accumulation of fat. The present study compared amylase and lipase activities in pancreatic tissue, rates of glucose and proline absorption by intact small intestine tissues, the amount of digested protein in the jejunum, amounts of abdominal and yolk fat, and serum glucose concentrations of mature laying hens (White Leghorn, 57 weeks of age) fed for 4 weeks a basal diet (control) with birds fed the same diet, but supplemented with either a short chain (oligofructose; Raftifeed PS; 1.0 %) or a long chain (inulin; Raftifeed PE; 1.3%) beta fructans. Higher serum glucose concentrations of birds fed diets with oligofructose and inulin (P< 0.05) corresponded with increased pancreatic amylase activity (P< 0.05), but without an increase in glucose transport. The prebiotic supplement increased the amount of digested protein in the jejunum contents (P< 0.05), but decreased pancreatic lipase activity and the amounts of abdominal and yolk fat (P< 0.05). These findings indicate supplementing the diet fed to mature laying hens with beta fructan prebiotics (oligofructose and inulin) alters digestion and metabolism.
  Y.C. Chen and T.C. Chen
  Marinating chicken breast fillets in 5%(W/W) native corn starch, potato starch, or modified waxy maize corn starch at room temperature prior to grilling improved (P<0.05) cooking yields, reduced (P<0.05) Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear values, and yielded longer (P<0.05) sacromere lengths compared to those of the tap-water marinated control. Among the tested starch treatments, modified waxy maize corn starch had the highest yield readings followed by corn starch and potato starch. Marinating fillets with 5% tested starches prior to grilling was also observed to yield lower (P<0.05) TBA values for grilled products than those of tap-water controls.
  Y.C. Chen , T.C. Chen , Shahid Shakeel Khan and Muhammad Jahangir
  Grilled poultry products have become more and more popular. Chicken breast fillets were either marinated for five minutes in vinegar-phosphate buffers with pH ranging from 5.0 to 8.5 or with marinades prepared with a commercial polyphosphate mixture (Kena) and vinegar with the same pH ranges. The marinated fillets were then grilled at 1490C to an internal temperature of 73.90C. Marinating chicken fillets in a vinegar-phosphate buffer with pH of 5.5 resulted in lowest (P<0.05) grilling yields and highest (P<0.05) Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear readings for the products. As the pH of phosphate buffer marinades decreased or increased, a trend in decreasing WB shear readings and increasing in grilling yields was observed. For fillets marinate with either vinegar or polyphosphate mixture, the buffer with pH 5.5 resulted in the highest (P>0.05) shear values. Adjusting marinade pH to 7.5 with polyphosphate mixture resulted in the highest (P<0.05) grilling yields as compared with those of marinades with other pH values. Results demonstrated that the marinade pH should be considered for marinating chicken fillets. Regardless of the ingredients, pH of 5.5 marinades should be avoided by the processors and pH of 7 marinades might be the good choice for marinades.
  O. Sangtherapitikul , Y. C. Chen and T.C. Chen
  The objective of this study was to develop novel products from spent hen protein hydrohysate. Protein hydrolysates have been used for flavoring purposes, as savory flavors or taste enhancers. Ground spent hen breast meat and water [1:10 % (w/w) and 1:2 (w/w)] were blended and hydrolyzed with either papain and Aspergillus oryzae protease [P+A, 0.5% (w/w) each of raw meat weight] or papain and Aspergillus oryzae protease and bromelain [P+A+B, 0.33% (w/w) each of raw meat weight] at 50 C for four hours. The enzyme activity was terminated by placing the reaction bottles in boiling water for 15 min. After cooling, either whole hydrolysates or filtrates were used for product preparations. Freeze during and evaporation methods were used in preparing hydrolysate powders or concentrated paste accordingly. Yield, moisture content, and microbiological analyses of the final products were also measured. Yields of freeze-dried powders from P+A and P+A+B hydrolysate prepared at 1:10 (meat: water) filtrates were 22.8 % (W/W) and 23.0% (W/W), respectively. Yields of freeze-dried whole hydrolysates were 26.0 and 24.8% for P+A and P+A+B, respectively. Meanwhile, freeze-dried powders from P+A and P+A+B hydrolysate prepared at 1:2 filtrates had 26.7 and 26.2% of yield, respectively, while the yields of concentrated paste from whole hydrolysates were 47.8 and 51.0% for P+A and P+A+B, accordingly. Both freeze-dried filtered hydrolysate and the freeze-dried hydrolysate products had a total aerobe plate count ranging from log 2.59 to 2.97 cfu/g. Similar range of total aerobes (log 2.74 to 2.84 cfu/g) was obtained in concentrated paste products. Neither Salmonella nor E. coli /Coliform was detected from the prepared products.
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