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Articles by T. Ramanathan
Total Records ( 20 ) for T. Ramanathan
  P. Thirunavukkarasu , T. Ramanathan , G. Umamaheshwari , V. Manigandan and P. Dinesh
  Ipomoea pes-caprae is a sand dune plant commonly used as folklore medicine for fisherman communities based on the traditional knowledge. Little information is available on the feasibility of applying micropropagation techniques for production of dune and marsh species. The main aim of this study is to increase the callus induction and shoot generation of sand dune plant Ipomoea pes-caprae with easily available low cost natural materials. Coconut water is the rich source of carbohydrate and other nutrients which enhance callus and plant regeneration. In our present study, we tried different type of MS medium (Full and half strength) with coconut water at three different percentage (10, 15, 20%) and different concentration of plant growth regulators for callus induction and shoot regeneration. Well-developed callus inoculated in full and half strength MS medium with different concentration of CW and plant growth regulators. The best results were accomplished with half strength MS medium with 15% coconut water and with 2, 4-D and IAA 0.7 mg L-1 concentration which shows better callus induction and shoot regeneration. Young shoot and root developed plants transferred to green house and then followed to soil.
  E. Rajamanickam , S. Gurudeeban , K. Satyavani and T. Ramanathan
  The leading cause of liver cancer is viral infection with hepatitis B and C virus. Liver cancer usually forms inflammation and cirrhosis caused by these viruses. The aim of the study was to investigate anti-liver cancer potential of Acanthus ilicifolius. Powdered leave material was extracted with ethanol and evaluated their anticancer potential on hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). Treatment with ethanolic extract of A. ilicofolius (AIEE) posses significant changes in cytotoxicity, apoptosis and caspase 3 expressions in HepG2 cells. The results indicated 100 μg mL-1 of AIEE reduced the viability of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, elevated lactase dehydrogenase and observed condensed chromatin, crooked vesicle shaped membrane in apoptotic nuclei and dead cells appeared bright orange. The expression of caspase 3 was decreased. This study demonstrates the A. ilicofolius have a potent anticancer source. Further analytical studies will be exploring the active constituents in holy mangrove.
  K. Satyavani , T. Ramanathan and S. Gurudeeban
  A protocol was developed for in vitro plantlet regeneration of Citrullus colocynthis using stem explants which was selected after screening of different seedling explants. Contamination free culture was established treating stem explants with 0.1% HgCl2 for 3 min. Optimum sucrose concentration for callus formation was 3%. The role of different growth additives like pyridoxine and thiamine HCl was assessed in enhancing callus number. The maximum number of callus induction was achieved from stem explants on MS medium enriched with 0.5 mg L-1 IAA, 2,4-D and 1 ppm of 6-BA which yielded morphogenic compact hard greenish white calli at a frequency of 80% than compared to MS medium enriched with other combination of auxin and cytokinin. Compact, hard, white/greenish white callus was formed in different amount at all concentration after 4 weeks interval. Then the callus was transferred to the shooting medium containing different concentration of auxin and cytokinin (MS medium with 1.5 mg L-1 6-BA and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA) showed better shooting. The regenerated shoots were further elongated on same medium. In vitro shoots were excised from shoot clumps and transferred to rooting medium containing 6-benzyl adenine (6-BA, 3.0 mg L-1) with 0.2% activated charcoal. The rooted plants were hardened in polycups containing sterile soil and vermiculite and finally well established in the field.
  S. Gurudeeban , T. Ramanathan , K. Satyavani and T. Dhinesh
  The present study has evaluated the genetic variability among three salt marsh plant belongs to the family of Chenopodiaceae using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. The method involves a modified Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide extraction, using polyvinyl pyrrolidone while grinding, successive long-term Chloroform: lsoamyalcohol extractions, an overnight RNase treatment with all steps carried out at room temperature. The yield of DNA ranged from 1.5-2.5 μg μL-1 per gram of the leaf tissue. The technique is ideal for isolation of DNA from different salt marsh plant species and used for Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. RAPD protocol was optimized based on the use of lower concentrations of primer (2 μM) and Taq polymerase (2 units), 50 ng of template DNA, higher concentration of MgCl2 (2 mM) and an annealing temperature of 37°C, resulted optimal amplification. The results suggest that the optimized protocol for DNA isolation and PCR was appropriate to diversity analysis of salt marsh plants.
  S. Gurudeeban , K. Satyavani and T. Ramanathan
  Bacillus megaterium isolated from leaves of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) was screened for their ability to produce α-amylase, studied in submerged fermentation by using an Adlof-Kuhner orbital shaker. The levels of amylase production detected in culture supernatants varied greatly with the type of carbon source used such as starch, lactose and glucose. Effect of different nitrogen sources revealed that peptone increase the enzyme yield. The enzyme activity increased between 1.5 and 3 g L-1 of yeast extract concentration and optimal concentration of peptone for the production of amylase was detected as 6 g L-1. The maximum enzyme activity was obtained under optimum conditions of an incubation period of 72 h, an incubation temperature of 35°C and pH of 6.5.
  K. Satyavani , Kannan C.S. Warrier , T. Ramanathan and S. Gurudeeban
  Casuarina equisetifolia is the wide spread exotic trees in peninsular Indian and well known member of the family Casuarinacea. The present study was carried out biochemical indicators of ten good rooting and poor rooting clones of Casuarina equisetifolia. The DNS and anthrone method of reducing sugar and carbohydrate was estimated respectively. The result of the analysis revealed significant difference between the good rooting and poor rooting clones with higher the content reducing sugar (6.99-12.68) in better rooting, lesser the content of carbohydrates (20.09-58.59) present in better rooting. The present investigation reveals reducing sugar and carbohydrates plays a major role in rooting of Casuarina equisetifolia.
  S. Gurudeeban , K. Satyavani and T. Ramanathan
  The present study reveals the medicinal uses, chemical compositions and examines recent investigations on the therapeutic activities of extracts and chemicals identified from Citrullus colocynthis. The article also presents some of the functions of the chemicals present and attempt to emphasize and create an awareness of the great potential of Citrullus colocynthis as a source of novel agrochemicals, compounds of medicinal value and biologically active compounds.
  S. Gurudeeban , K. Satyavani and T. Ramanathan
  Ceriops decandra is a glabrous shrub belongs to a family Rhizophoraceae distributed in a region including Southeast India, East Africa and Australia. The present study aimed to identify a tool in identifying the mangrove at the molecular level. The chloroplast trnL region was amplified from extracted total genomic DNA using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence of the principal agarose gel band revealed that Ceriops decandra and deposited in NCBI with the accession No. JN871232.
  V. Manigandan and T. Ramanathan
  Docking is one of the important computational tools for identifying the structural modeling and predicting the activity of potential drug. The β-Amyloid (Aβ) and acetylcholine (AChE) are playing a role in the neurotoxicity associated with Alzheimer’s disease. In the present study, five mangroves derived compounds such as avicenol A, betulinic acid, lupeol, quercetin and triterpenoid were selected for docking with target Aβ and ACHE. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking. The important parameters like binding energy, length of a hydrogen bond, amino acid residues, cluster and reference RMSD were determined. Betulinic acid and triterpenoid showed higher binding energy (-5.54 and -46.79 kcal mol-1) on Aβ and AChE esterase receptor than compared to other derivatives.
  V. Manigandan , S. Gurudeeban , K. Satyavani and T. Ramanathan
  Computer aided drug design is playing an important role in identifying the drug targets. The contribution of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) to peripheral inflammation and brain inflammation is well documented. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate inhibitory effect of Rhizophora mucronata derived alkaloids such as ajmalicine, vindoline, catharanthine, serpentine and tabersonin on COX 2. Based on Lamarckian genetic algorithm, the alkaloids were docked with target protein using Auto Dock 4.0. The results indicated serpentine and ajmalicine expresses higher binding energy (-9.16 and -8.12 kcal mol-1), length of a hydrogen bond (2.211 and 2.079), amino acid residues (HIS 388) on cyclooxygenase 2 receptor than compared to other derivatives. This study concludes that serpentine and ajmalicine acts as a potent source for anti-neuro-inflammatory agents. Further preclinical studies will be carried out to find out the exact molecular level mechanism and drug development for neuro inflammation disorders.
  P. Thirunavukkarasu , T. Ramanathan , S. Asha , V. Manigandan and D. Kannan
  Rhizophora apiculata, a mangrove specie is used in traditional medicine against several human diseases including tumor. To validate the ethnopharmacological claims against cancer, we examined the effects of Rhizophora apiculata leaf oil on the anti gastric cancer activities of Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced gastric cancer in albino mice. The animals were divided into five groups. Group I were given BaP (40 mg kg-1 b.wt.) with 100 μL sesame oil by oral gavage twice a week for 4 consecutive weeks. Group II were given 100 μL sesame oil (SMO) treated (Vehicle treated control) a week for 4 consecutive weeks. Group III mice (BaP) (40 mg kg-1 b.wt.)+R. apiculata (50 μL) for 14 weeks. Group IV only R. apiculata (50 μL kg-1 b.wt.) dialy for two weeks. Goup V as the control non treated. At end of 14 weeks, all the animal were killed. Tumor incidence was observed to be 100% in mice that received only BaP. However, treatment with R. apiculata oil reduced the tumor incidence as observed in mice of BaP+R. apiculata oil group when compared to that of BaP group. Similarly, the tumor burden and body weight were seen to decrease by 137.21, respectively in mice of BaP+R. apiculata oil group when compared to those of BaP group. Diminished lipid peroxidation in the stomach tumor tissue was associated with enhanced antioxidant levels. In contrast to tumor tissue, enhanced lipid peroxidation with compromised antioxidant defences was found in the liver and erythrocytes of tumor bearing animals. Administration of R. apiculata oil significantly reduced the incidence of stomach tumors, modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status in the stomach, liver and blood. From the results of our study, we suggest that R. apiculata oil may exert its chemopreventive effects by modulating lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant status in the stomach, liver and erythrocytes.
  E. Rajamanickam , S. Gurudeeban , K. Satyavani and T. Ramanathan
  Acanthus ilicifolius (Acanthaceae) has received considerable attention due to its wide range of traditional usage in Indian system of medicine. The chemopreventive effect of ethanol extracts of Acanthus ilicifolius (AIEE) on N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN, 200 mg kg–1)-induced experimental liver tumour was investigated in male Wistar rats. Experimental rats were orally treated with AIEE (400 mg kg–1 b.wt.) for 1 week before the injection of diethyl nitrosamine and continued to be 14 weeks. The changes of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and membrane bound enzymes were studied in AIEE treated experimental and control rats. The result indicates AIEE treatment effectively suppressed liver tumour induced with DEN as revealed by decrease in the levels of extend of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lipid peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase with a concomitant increase in enzymatic antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and catalase) levels when compared to those in liver tumour bearing rats. The result of the study concludes significant chemopreventive effect of AIEE against DEN induced liver tumour.
  L. Ramkumar , T. Ramanathan , P. Thirunavukkarasu and N. Arivuselvan
  This study revealed that antioxidant properties, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power were observed in different mushroom species namely Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus euos, Hybsizus ulmarius, Pleurotus florida, Volveriela volvaciea, Pleurotus platypus, Pleurotus djamor and Calocybe indica. Methonolic extract of P. euos was recorded maximum levels of DPPH free radical scavenging (6 mg mL-1), reducing power (6 mg mL-1) and enzymatic antioxidants viz., catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidise, 68.7±1.1, 0.39±0.01, 42.21±0.06, 37.12±0.04 and 7.21±0.05, respectively. The maximum amount of enzymatic antioxidants were recorded viz., CAT, SOD and POX; 42.21±0.06, 37.12±0.04 and 7.21±0.05 μmol, respectively.
  P. Thirunavukkarasu , T. Ramanathan , N. Ravichandran and L. Ramkumar
  The objective of this study was to determine the potential anti-microbial activity of aqueous ethanolic and chloroform extracts from 3 medicinal plants against bacteria and some fungal strains. The antimicrobial efficacy of Citrullus colocynthis, Citrullus lanatus and Citrullus vulgaris, was evaluated against Gram negative, positive and some fungal strains and including Esherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus some fungal Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium chrysogenum using agar well diffusion method at concentration levels (100 mg mL-1). Among the tested plants, Citrullus colonthis extract showed the highest antibacterial and anti fungal activity and all bacterial and fungal strains at 100 mg mL-1. In addition, almost all species of plants were found to have activity on at least two microbial strains. However, the diameters of inhibition zone were different according to the kinds and concentrations of plant extracts and bacterial and fungal strains. The ethanol extract of citrullus colocynthis was very active against bacterial and fungal at a concentration of 100 mg mL-1. But Trichosporon begelli showed that no zone inhibition in C. valgaries plants of ethanol and chloroform extracts.
  P. Thirunavukkarasu , T. Ramanathan and L. Ramkumar
  Acanthus ilicifolius is a very potential plant and it has more phyto chemical compounds. In present study, anti microbial and hemolytic effects of Acanthus ilicifolius leaves extracts of chloroform and aqueous in isolated protein. The antimicrobial activity of crude extract against bacterial and fungal pathogens showed the clear inhibition zone against Vibrio cholerae and Aspergillus niger in chloroform extract and aqueous extracts showed clear inhibition zone for Pseudomonas sp. and Candida albicans. Both the extracts exhibited hemolytic activity which was estimated as 10.80 ht mg-1 for chloroform extract and 9.5 ht mg-1 for aqueous extract. The partial purification of protein is done by using DEAE cellulose. On SDS-PAGE the crude protein yielded three well defined bands at 100.5, 52 and 21.4 kDa in both the extracts.
  K. Satyavani , V. Dheepak , S. Gurudeeban and T. Ramanathan
  Heliotropium crassavicum L. is a sand binder salt marsh herb with enormous traditional value and widely found in South Asia America and Europe. In the direct method of regeneration from stem explants, we observed the maximum number of shoot regeneration after four weeks culture of MS elongation medium with 2.0 mg L-1 of 2, 4-D (17.27±0.51). It was clear that MS medium with 2.0 mg mL-1 2, 4-D alone suitable for shoot multiplication as well as shoot elongation then compared to other combination of auxin and cytokinin. In vitro shoots were excised from shoot clumps and transferred to rooting medium containing 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.5-3.0 mg L-1). The maximum number of root regeneration (6.4±0.416) and root length (6.08±0.07) were observed in MS rooting medium fortified with 2.5 mg L-1 of 2, 4-D after 2 weeks of culture. 85% of in vitro raised plantlets with well-developed shoots and roots were transferred to ex vivo conditions into polythene bag containing sterile compost with ratio (v/v/v) of organic fertilizer: sand: peat (1: 2: 2; 3: 1:0 or 2: 2: 1). Sixty five percent of acclimated plants were transferred to the pots under full sun where they grew well without any detectable phenotypic variations.
  S. Gurudeeban , K. Satyavani and T. Ramanathan
  Molecular identification data of unexplored Indian Rhizophoraceae an eco-friendly mangroves are an imperative aspect in molecular phylogenetics. We describe the phylogenetic relationships among the Rhizophoraceae genus Rhizophora, Ceriops and Bruguiera using tRNA Leu (UAA) intron sequences as a molecular marker. The results of present study reveals congeneric relationship between R. apiculata, R. mucronata, B. gymnorhiza indicating a high degree of gene flow within them and the pairwise distribution of study plants among Rhizophoraceae family. The phylogram constructed using tRNA Leu sequence clearly clustered the species of the same genus in individual group. The stem-loop could be divided into two classes, both built up from two base pairing heptanucleotide repeats. Size variation was primarily caused by different numbers of repeats but some strains also contained additional sequences in this stem-loop. The statistical summaries of DNA sequence data can enable to identify the structural signature of the genome as well as to classify phylogenetic relationships among different species reflected in the difference of genetic diversity distributions within their DNA sequences.
  P. Thirunavukkarasu , T. Ramanathan , R. Shanmugapriya , G. Umamaheswari and G. Renugadevi
  Acanthus ilicifolius is a mangrove plant and it used coastal village peoples for traditional folk medicine method for varies disease. In general salt tolerance plants have a more antioxidant constitute. In the present study researchers have examine different type of anti oxidant capacity like that total phenolic, DPPH radical, nitraxcite radical, hydroxyl radical and ABC radical in two solvent extract of ethanol and aqueous for different concentration like 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. In the result showed that maximum in 2.0 mg mL-1 of leaves extract of ethanol and minimum in aqueous extract in 0.1 concentration for all antioxidant assay. In this result showed that highly effect in antioxidant levels in two solvent extract and varies concentration so there would be a good antioxidant property.
  T. Ramanathan , S. Gurudeeban and K. Satyavani
  Local anesthetics are a well-known group of pharmaceutical agents used to relieve pain in specific parts of the organism, inhibiting propagation of signals along the nerves. The present study petroleum ether extract of Citrullus colocynthis was evaluated its local anesthetic activity in the animal frog Rana hexadactyla. Local anesthetics are intended to relieve pain by depressing or blocking the sensory nerves reversibly. Local anaesthetics block nerve conduction where applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentration 1:10 and 1:100. They act on any part of the various systems and on every type of nerve fibre. Lumbar plexus anesthesia method (or) nerve block Anesthesia method is used to study the activity briefly. This study proves that the leaves are equally effective as that of the synthetic standard drug xyclocaine when placed in sciatic nerve. Further studies are warranted to compare the mechanism of action.
  K. Satyavani , T. Ramanathan and S. Gurudeeban
  Plant mediated synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an increasing commercial demand due to the wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, cosmetics and medicine. In the present investigation, synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using leaf extracts of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrader and characterized by using UV spec, FT-IR and AFM. The extract incubated with AgNO3 showed gradual change in the colour of the extract from greenish to reddish brown with intensity increasing during the period of incubation. Hence the leaf extract act as a reducing and capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized by using UV visible absorption spectra, FT-IR and AFM. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape and 31 nm by AFM. FT-IR peaks were in the extract ranging from 1000-4000 cm-1 which confirmed the presence of polyphenols with aromatic ring and bound amide region required for the synthesis and stabilization of sliver nanoparticles.
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