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Articles by T. Kishimoto
Total Records ( 2 ) for T. Kishimoto
  T. Kishimoto
 

In the late 1960s, the essential role of T cells in antibody production was reported. This led to our hypothesis that T-cell-derived soluble factors would have to be involved in the activation of B cells. The factor that induced B cells to produce immunoglobulins was initially named B-cell stimulatory factor-2. In 1986, we successfully cloned the complementary DNA encoding B-cell stimulatory factor-2, now known as IL-6. At the same time, IFN-β2 and a 26-kDa protein found in fibroblasts were independently cloned and found to be identical to IL-6. Later, a hybridoma/plasmacytoma growth factor and a hepatocyte-stimulating factor were also proven to be the same molecule as IL-6. Now, we know that IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biological activities in immune regulation, hematopoiesis, inflammation and oncogenesis. Since the discovery of IL-6, we have further clarified its activities, the IL-6R system and the IL-6 signal transduction mechanism. On the basis of the findings, a new therapeutic approach to block the actions of IL-6 by use of a humanized anti-IL-6R antibody has been proven to be therapeutically effective for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and Castleman's disease. In this review, I discuss the history of IL-6 research as a paradigm of progress from basic science to clinical applications.

  A Kimura , T Naka , T Nakahama , I Chinen , K Masuda , K Nohara , Y Fujii Kuriyama and T. Kishimoto
 

Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals perform a crucial role in innate immune responses to pathogens. In this study, we found that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) negatively regulates inflammatory responses mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in macrophages. Ahr was induced in macrophages stimulated by LPS, but not by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plus interleukin (IL)-6, which can induce Ahr in naive T cells. The production of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- by LPS was significantly elevated in Ahr-deficient macrophages compared with that in wild-type (WT) cells. Ahr-deficient mice were more highly sensitive to LPS-induced lethal shock than WT mice. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) deficiency, as well as Ahr deficiency, augmented LPS-induced IL-6 production. We found that Ahr forms a complex with Stat1 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) in macrophages stimulated by LPS, which leads to inhibition of the promoter activity of IL-6. Ahr thus plays an essential role in the negative regulation of the LPS signaling pathway through interaction with Stat1.

 
 
 
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