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Articles by T. Al-Mutawa
Total Records ( 4 ) for T. Al-Mutawa
  M.A. Razzaque , T. Al-Mutawa and S.A. Mohammed
  Problem statement: In many hot arid countries, pregnant Holstein Friesian heifers are imported for herd replacement. The calves obtained from exotic cows are exposed to adverse climate in feedlot system resulting in very high morbidity and mortality rates. Diarrhea, dehydration and deaths are causing a major loss to the producers. This study examines the Risk Rates (RR) for morbidity and mortality in pre-weaned calves. Approach: Thirteen commercial dairy farms of small, medium and large sizes were surveyed using 1,280 newborn calves. A survey was conducted for calves from their birth to weaning at 90 day. Parameters of the study were birth weights, colostrum feeding, growth rate, incidences of diseases, clinical symptoms, post-mortem findings and results of laboratory investigations of samples obtained from sick and dead calves. Calf housing and feeding management of 13 farms were investigated. Results: RR for morbidity and mortality ranged from 0.3-1.00 and being highest during the first week. Most common disease was diarrhea representing 90.6% of the total calves affected. Common pathogens causing diarrhea were E. coli, Salmonella sp. Klebsiella, Pasturella and rotavirus. Relationship between calf management and morbidity RR for diarrhea was significant (r2 = 627, p = 0.01) and the growth rate was positively correlated (r2 = 0.761, p = 0.1). Diarrhea caused a significant negative impact on gross margins of the calf enterprises. Conclusion: Colostrum feeding and housing management were the key factors for causing a high RR for morbidity and mortality. Gross margin loss was significantly influenced by morbidity and mortality RR of calves.
  M.A. Razzaque , T. Al-Mutawa , S. Abbas and M. Bedair
  Problem statement: A high mortality rate (crude mortality 43.6%) of pre-weaned dairy calves resulted in unavailability of replacement heifers in Kuwait. Dairy producers resorted to import pregnant heifers for herd replacement. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dam vaccination and age, serum Immunoglobulin (Ig) on disease syndromes and mortality in pre-weaned calves. Approach: Late pregnant Holstein Friesian dairy cows and heifers of five commercial dairy operations were divided into two herds: Treatment (T) vaccinated using Lactovac against Rotavirus, Coronavirus and Escherichia coli and Control (C) unvaccinated herds. Total of 1,088 newborn calves of above herds were also divided as T and C for studies from their birth to weaning at 90 days. Calves weighed at birth, fed colostrum, serum proteins and Ig (IgG, IgM and IgA) were determined; disease syndromes, morbidity and mortality rates were investigated. Results: Mean birth weight (34.25±SE 0.21 kg) of calves did not differ significantly (p<0.01) between treatments. Crude mortality rates differed significantly (p<0.01) ranging from 2.83-22.83% in calves among herds. Highly significant differences were observed in Ig classes of blood serum of calves: IgG (F 3.47 p<0.010), IgM (F 3.52 p<0.009) and IgA (F 3.66 p<0.008). The effects of Ig levels on calf morbidity rates were significant (p<0.05) on three disease syndromes: pneumonia, diarrhea and pneumo-enteritis. Vaccination of pregnant dams and oral administration of antibodies to newborn calves reduced calf morbidity and mortality rates. Major disease syndromes were pneumo-enteritis (34.6%) and pneumonia (33.8%). Younger calves were greatly affected by these diseases. Conclusion: Inadequate levels of passive immunity of young calves were commonly found in Kuwait’s farms. This study demonstrated the importance of passive immunity of calves by ensuring adequate levels of serum Ig and protein levels.
  M. A. Razzaque , S. A. Mohammed and T. Al-Mutawa
  Problem statement: Economic losses due to high mortality in young calves born in hot arid zone including Kuwait and a high cost of rearing are the main constraints to this region. Therefore, dairy producers have to depend on importation of pregnant heifers for herd replacement. Research data on cost of heifer rearing from their weaning to first lactation were lacking. The objectives of the present investigation were to compare the costs/benefits of raising heifers born in Kuwait without and with intervention measures and project the future financial benefits. Approach: Present study methods involved using cost-benefit model where without and with intervention scenarios were compared using a total of 58 herd parameters. These variables included in the spreadsheets in the model could be varied during each year of projection period. Production turnoff of 3 herds each of 245 cows in three scenarios namely baseline, improved and future were evaluated. Input costs of imported heifers (baseline), locally raised heifers with interventions (improved) and projected 10 year (future) and the income generated from these scenarios were analyzed. Results: Total income generated from baseline, improved and the future projection were KD 268,715/-, 281,246/-and 342,251/-respectively (1 KD Kuwaiti Dinar = US $3.45); total operating costs of these scenarios were KD 249,372/-, 242,276/-and 205,929/-respectively. Financial analyses showed that benefits were double when interventions were applied KD 19,343/-Vs KD 38,970/-in baseline and improved operation respectively. Conclusion: Fifty percent of the total heifers needed for herd replacement could be sourced locally showing an increased net income as an outcome of intervention measures. Locally born adapted heifers could be used for dairying in this hot arid zone with a phase-wise increase in their herd size reducing dependence on imported dairy cattle.
  M.A. Razzaque , S.A. Mohammed , T. Al-Mutawa and M. Bedair
  Kuwait’s dairy producers import pregnant Holstein Friesian Heifers and they thrive for 2.3 lactations with poor milk yield. Offspring of imported dams are subjected to high mortality, poor growth and reproduction. This study investigated growth, reproduction, milk yield and composition of locally born heifers fed two types of diets. Total 92 weaned 90 d old heifers born in Kuwait from imported dams were assigned to two different diets. Control (C): 25 heifers were fed commercial diet and Treatment (T): 67 heifers were fed balanced improved diets containing 17.5% and 15.1% CP, respectively. T diet was also balanced with vitamins and minerals, where, as C diets were not. Both herds were individually monitored for their heights and live weights; followed by reproductive and lactation performance. Herd T gained significantly (p<0.05) better live weight (T: 0.88 Kg vs. C: 0.71 Kg/h/d) than that of C and reaching significantly (p<0.01) better heights (T: 59% vs. C: 15%) of total standard height of 132 cm. Farm to farm differences in first service (mean±SD) conception rate and pregnancy rate did not differ between C and T herds (p = 0.05). Milk yield differences for C and T herds were 16.86±0.70 and 18.30±1.40 L/cow/day, respectively as well as Milk composition were not significant (p= 0.05). Milk Urea Nitrogen (MUN) concentration was significantly higher (p<0.001) in T herd than that of C reflecting a better protein nutritional status in T than that of C herd.
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