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Articles by T Ueno
Total Records ( 2 ) for T Ueno
  Y Fujitani , T Ueno and H. Watada

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved machinery for degradation and recycling of various cytoplasmic components such as long-lived proteins and organelles. In pancreatic β-cells, as in most other cells, autophagy is also important for the low basal turnover of ubiquitinated proteins and damaged organelles under normal conditions. Insulin resistance results in upregulation of autophagic activity in β-cells. Induced autophagy in β-cells plays a pivotal role in the adaptive expansion of β-cell mass. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether autophagy is protective or detrimental in response to cellular stresses in β-cells. In this review, we describe the crucial roles of autophagy in normal function of β-cells and discuss how dysfunction of the autophagic machinery could lead to the development of diabetes mellitus.

  G. B Kyei , C Dinkins , A. S Davis , E Roberts , S. B Singh , C Dong , L Wu , E Kominami , T Ueno , A Yamamoto , M Federico , A Panganiban , I Vergne and V. Deretic

Autophagy is a cytoplasmic degradative pathway that can participate in biosynthetic processes, as in the yeast Cvt pathway, but is more commonly known for its functions in removing damaged or surplus organelles and macromolecular complexes. Here, we find that autophagy intersects with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) biogenesis, mirroring the above dichotomy. Early, nondegradative stages of autophagy promoted HIV yields. HIV Gag-derived proteins colocalized and interacted with the autophagy factor LC3, and autophagy promoted productive Gag processing. Nevertheless, when autophagy progressed through maturation stages, HIV was degraded. This, however, does not occur, as the HIV protein Nef acts as an antiautophagic maturation factor through interactions with the autophagy regulatory factor Beclin 1, thus protecting HIV from degradation. The dual interaction of HIV with the autophagy pathway enhances viral yields by using the early stages while inhibiting the late stages of autophagy. The role of Nef in the latter process enhances yields of infectious HIV and may be of significance for progression to clinical AIDS.

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