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Articles by Shahida Begum
Total Records ( 4 ) for Shahida Begum
  Shahida Begum , F. Tarlochan and K. Sambasivam
  Electroplating is a process of depositing a layer of metal onto another base metal using the electrodeposition technique, where an acid is used as a medium of transferring the desired metal onto the base metal. During electroplating anodes are wasted and burnt and ended up not being used on the end product. A series of experiments with various input parameters were carried out in order to identify the best possible setting and to minimize anode usage. It was observed that for different voltage setting and electrolyte concentration the consumption of anode was more when porosity in anode basket was higher. The statistical analysis revealed that the input variables like the porosity, concentration of electrolyte and applied voltage have pronounced effect on the anode usage; however, the most significant influence was from porosity. The usage of the anodes was much less as the porosity due to the arrangement of anode in anode basket decreased. The interactive affects of the input variables such as the porosity and the voltage and the porosity and the concentration were also prominent. The second order model developed by using response surface methodology also revealed the same trend. The optimum operating conditions were identified by response optimizer plot and were verified experimentally. Both the analytical and experimental results indicated that anode usage could be reduced by 6.12% from that of the current practice. Hence by optimizing the process variables in electroplating industry, it is possible to reduce the usage significantly and to make the process cost effective.
  Kirubaharan and Shahida Begum
  Background: The Ni-Co alloy is one of the crucial substrate in electronic industries. However, the substrate is contaminated with gold which is transformed to gold oxide during heat treatment, thereby resulting poor coating on the substrate during electroplating and inefficient solderability. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effect of different substrate preparation parameters before electroplating was investigated. Apart from that, the steps of surface preparation were also modified. The study was conducted in the process line using actual methods of the electroplating process and the electroplating equipment/apparatus and the substrate being used in electronic industry. The materials used were contaminated Ni-Co substrate, which was electroplated with pure tin to form a coating on the substrate. Different types of acid was used as descale medium. Results: The investigation with modified electroplating parameter and modified existing descale parameter did not exhibit any significant improvement of the electroplated film adhesion. However, the modified precleaning steps exhibited significant improvement in adhesion of coating on the substrate surface and the rejection of substrate was completely eliminated. Conclusion: The variation of precleaning parameters using standard descale acid and electroplating parameters did not resolve the poor adhesion of electroplating film on the Ni-Co substrate. However, the modified precleaning steps with new descale acid provided appropriate coating of tin on substrate surface during electroplating. The non-adhesion issue was completely eliminated and efficient solderability was achieved. It was found that with standard substrate preparation steps but variation of electroplating parameters could not eliminate the defects formation. However, modified precleaning with new descale acid completely eliminated the non-adhesion problem. There were no defects even at the lower level of electroplating parameters. Thus, the material and power consumption during electroplating were reduced. Highly efficient solderability was achieved, thereby, eliminating the rejection of substrate to be used in electronic devices completely. Hence, it can be said that the reliability of the electronic devices was enhanced and the process became cost effective.
  Kirubaharan and Shahida Begum
  Background and Objective: Surface of substrates used in electroplating needs to be free from contaminants during the electroplating process. For this study the substrate material is nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) which is contaminated with gold and the gold is transformed to gold oxide during heat treatment. The contamination results in poor adhesion of the coating on the substrate during electroplating and thereby, causing inefficient solderability. The objective of this study was to find a correlation of the descale process parameters on the occurrence of exposed base metal of nickel-cobalt film which was contaminated with gold. Methodology: In this study, the statistical analysis on the effects of modified pretreatment was investigated. Apart from that, the steps of surface preparation were also modified. The actual electroplating line was used to conduct the experimental runs and research. The results were analyzed using factorial analysis of variance method and using the 3-Dimensional plot and optimized using the response optimizer. Ni-Co substrate which was contaminated with gold was used as a base material for plating, pure tin was used as a plating medium on the substrate. Descale process used different types of acid as an electrolyte medium. A significant factor or α of 0.05 was employed for this experiment. Results: In the modified pre-cleaning process the interactive effects of the electrolyte concentration, the immersion time and the electrolysis current played a crucial role in eliminating the rejects. Conclusion: Individual input variables do have a significant effect on the variation of exposed base metal. Moreover, the interactive effects of the variables also have a significant effect on eliminating the occurrences of defects during electroplating. The rejection of substrate could be eliminated completely after electroplating.
  Shahida Begum and Mohd Firdaus M. Saad
  In Malaysia, nearly 80 million tons of fresh fruit bunches are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tons of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). This POME is known to generate biogas consisting of methane-a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. The amount of methane gas generated annually is equivalent to 19 million tons of carbon dioxide. To meet the regulatory requirement, more than 85% of the mills use solely the lagoon systems in waste water treatment, typically anaerobic first stage followed by facultative treatment. However, these two major palm oil wastes are a viable Renewable Energy (RE) source for production of electricity. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to study the technological parameters for different capacity digester to produce electricity. The cost related data are collected from Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. Net present worth, internal rate of return and payback period were calculated. On the basis of the calculated values it has been found that the application of biogas plant for generation of electricity is economically viable in Malaysian perspective and this viability or economic attractiveness increase with the increase of plant size. The findings of this study should be useful to give some directions and guidelines for future planning and implementation of biogas plants in Malaysia.
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