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Articles by Sana Ullah
Total Records ( 5 ) for Sana Ullah
  Sana Ullah , Maryam Begum , Kuldeep Dhama , Saeed Ahmad , Said Hassan and Ibrar Alam
  The current study was aimed to investigate the genotoxic effect of an organophosphate pesticide malathion in the gills of a freshwater teleost rohu, Labeo rohita using alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE)/comet assay. The 96 h LC50 of malathion was estimated for rohu in a semi-static system and was found to be 5 μg L–1. Specimens of rohu were exposed to LC50 of malathion. Gill tissues were sampled after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. DNA damage was evaluated by studying different indices, including tail length (μm), percentage of DNA in tail, tail moment and olive tail moment using TriTek CometScoreTM. A linear relation was observed between exposure time and DNA damage in the gill cells. The current study revealed malathion as a potent inducer of DNA damage and comet assay as a reliable and sensitive assay for investigating and detecting DNA damage in vivo, induced in fish by genotoxic pesticides. In order to conserve the vanishing populations of rohu in natural aquatic bodies across the country, indiscriminate use of genotoxic pesticides such as malathion should be minimized.
  Sana Ullah , Zaigham Hasan and Kuldeep Dhama
  The current study was designed to investigate the behavioural and biochemical changes induced by endosulfan in brain, gills, liver and muscle of rohu, Labeo rohita. Behavioural changes observed after exposing fish to LC50 of endosulfan, were erratic swimming, jumping, loss of equilibrium and balance, hyperactivity, increased air gulping and surface activity. These changes were observed to be more pronounced with length of exposure time. Longer exposure made the fish lethargic, with the lesser operculur beat, adopted a vertical position sometimes and motionless state before dying. Internal hemorrhage was conspicuous. A time dependent decrease in total protein contents and increase in antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) was observed in the brain, gills, liver and muscles of rohu. A time dependent increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was also observed in different tissues. The current study reports endosulfan as highly toxic to L. rohita. Its indiscriminate use should be controlled in order to conserve the population of rohu and other Cyprinids in natural aquatic systems.
  Sana Ullah , Maryam Begum , Saeed Ahmad and Kuldeep Dhama
  The current study was designed to determine the genotoxic effect of endosulfan at sublethal concentrations (66, 50 and 33% of LC50, 1.5 μg L–1) in peripheral blood erythrocytes of an economically important indigenous Indian major carp Mori, Cirrhinus mrigala . A total of 180 fish were divided into four groups, each group received 45 individuals. Group 1st served as control (received no endosulfan), while group 2nd (0.5 μg L–1), 3rd (0.75 μg L–1) and 4th (1 μg L–1) were exposed to endosulfan. For investigating the induced DNA damage, the blood samples were collected from the caudal veins of the fingerlings in all the groups after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of endosulfan exposure. Endosulfan induced DNA damage in all the treated groups at all concentrations, in terms of percentage of damaged cell (% damage cell) and Genetic Damage Index (GDI) based on visual classification of the extent of damage (Class 0-4) and cumulative tail length (μm). A concentration and time dependent increase was observed in DNA damage in the exposed groups, the highest damage was observed in group 4th (1 μg L–1) followed by group 3rd (0.75 μg L–1). Similarly, the highest level of DNA damage was observed in peripheral blood erythrocytes sampled after 28 days, followed by 21 days after exposure. The current study displayed the severe genotoxic potential of endosulfan in Cirrhinus mrigala , even at sublethal concentrations. Therefore, the indiscriminate and injudicious use of endosulfan should be strictly monitored and banned or at least controlled by the responsible governmental authorities.
  Sana Ullah , Said Hassan and Kuldeep Dhama
  The current study was designed to assess heavy metals’ concentration in muscle tissues of two Chinese carps, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), available to consumers in markets at district Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Fish specimens were collected from three main markets in the study area namely; Chakdara, Timergara and Khall. Heavy metals including; manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and cobalt (Co) were investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Cobalt was not detected in any of the fish specimens while the rest of the metals were lying within the permissible limits suggested by FAO/WHO and ITS for food/fish consumption. The results showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) difference between both species with respect to the concentration of the accumulated heavy metals. In common carp, the heavy metal accumulation was in order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Cd, while in silver carp the order was Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cd>Cu. Higher concentration of Pb, Mn, Zn, Cu and Cd was recorded in muscle of common carp while the concentration of Fe was higher in silver carp, indicating higher potential of accumulation of heavy metals in common carp. Statistically significant (p<0.05) correlation was observed between Pb and Zn in common carp while between Cu and Cd in silver carp. The concentration of heavy metals was in the suggested permissible limits and poses no threat if consumed. In order to maintain the heavy metals level within permissible limits, proper care should be taken along with regular assessment.
  Muhammad Ashraf , Sana Ullah , Tariq Rashid , Mohammad Ayub , Ehsan Mahmood Bhatti , Sajid Ali Naqvi and Muhammmad Javaid
  Brachionus calyciflorus is commonly found in fresh water ponds. Its production depends on unrelenting supply of Chlorella in sufficient quantity. In the current studies a water sample was collected from fish culture ponds by Wisconsin plankton net (64 μm mesh). The freshly collected stock was concentrated and fractionated by passing through 600, 200, 125, 75 and 38 μm sieves arranged vertically with gradual decrease in pore size. The pure Brachionus calyciflorus were fed on Chlorella available in the laboratory. Algae was gradually replaced by yeast to reduce dependency on labour intensive live food. Maximum number of rotifers 413 ml-1, was observed when they were fed on 160:32 yeast:algae ratio by weight combination. Ciliates and cyclops posed a major threat during culture and frequent crashes were observed due to this menace. Cyclops were selectively eradicated from the rotifer culture at 0.09 DDVP after 20 h of exposure but not ciliates. There was no selective mortality in ciliates at any stage. Nevertheless both ciliates and rotifers were dead at 0.2 ppm. Simple method of cyst preservation is mentioned.
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