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Articles by Samia A. Haroun
Total Records ( 2 ) for Samia A. Haroun
  Adel A. El-Morsi , Samia A. Haroun , Ayat M. Hassan , Dalia G. Aseel and Elsayed E. Hafez
  Background and Objective: Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most destructive virus of citrus which resulted in huge economic losses to citrus crop in Egypt and all over the world. We aim in this study to determine the presence, distribution and well characterize the virus in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A number of 77 naturally infected leaves and leaf petioles of citrus plants were collected from different cultivated areas in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. The symptoms in infected plants included tristeza or quick decline, vein clearing and leaf cupping. Moreover, stem pitting of the trunk and branches of infected trees was observed. The leaves were collected and subjected to ELISA test. Results: The results revealed that about 84% of the collected samples with symptoms were positive. The ultra thin sections of CTV-infected leaves showed the presence of viral arrays, fibrous inclusions and accumulated cytoplasmic vesicles. Also, masses of electron-dense bodies were found between the cell wall and cell membrane. Accordingly, lipid accumulations and multi vesicular bodies were abundant in the cytoplasm. More effects were observed such as nuclear membrane invaginations and chloroplast degradation. Electron microscopy examination for the purified preparation (based on PEG precipitation and differential centrifugation) revealed the presence of filamentous virus-like particles with size about 2000×11 nm. Conclusion: The virus characterization has a vital role for rapid detection of CTV and prevents prevalence to other areas. The study proved the presence of tristeza virus in Egypt and the stockholder should take steps to control its distribution all over Egypt. The virus completely destroys the cell and it is highly distributed in all visited areas. Further studies should be carried out to find suitable tools for preventing the virus hassles for citrus production.
  Hoda M. Soliman , Farkad H. Musa , Mohamed A. El-Metwally and Samia A. Haroun
  Background: Fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilt diseases in a wide variety of economically important crops. Control of plant diseases still relies mainly on the use of synthetic fungicides, but environmental and health concerns and the development of fungicide-resistant pathogens have stimulated the search for alternative control strategies. Materials and Methods: Fusarium oxysporum isolated from the roots of diseased mung bean plans collected from Aga district, Dahahlia, Egypt (F1) recorded the highest values of wilt disease incidence (50%) in the pathogenicity test. Results: Cytokinins at concentrations of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm and β-sitosterol at 10–1, 10–3, 10–5 and 10–7 M slightly reduced the linear growth of F. oxysporum on PDA solid medium. In the greenhouse experiment, the β-sitosterol at 10–5 M was the most effective treatment in reducing the incidence of wilt (11.38e) in mung bean plant infected with Fusarium oxysporum . The growth parameters of mung bean plants (root length, shoot length, root fresh and dry weight, shoot fresh and dry weight and No. of leaves per plant) were significantly increased at the treatments cytokinins at the concentration 100 ppm and β-sitosterol at the concentration 10–5 M. Similarly, the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotonoids and total pigments) as well as the defense enzymes (peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and catalase) activity and the content of total phenols were significantly increased by the same treatments. Also, the yield parameters (No. of pods per plant, weight of pods per plant, No. of seeds per plant and weight of seeds per plant) were significantly increased in mung bean plants non-infected and infected with Fusarium oxysporum treated with cytokinins at the concentration 100 ppm or β-sitosterol at the concentration 10–5 M. Conclusion: It is evident from the above results that, the resistance of mung bean plant to the used pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxyspurm) was more or less improved by priming the seeds in kinetin and β-sitosterol specially in response to 100 ppm kinetin and 10–5 M β-sitosterol, these plant growth regulators could be used, as safe compounds to improve the resistance of mung bean plant to fungal pathogens.
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