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Articles by S.S. Diarra
Total Records ( 12 ) for S.S. Diarra
  S.S. Diarra , D. Sandakabatu , D. Perera , P. Tabuaciri and U. Mohammed
  A three-week experiment was conducted to investigate the utilisation of a diet based on Cassava Root Meal (CRM) and copra meal by finishing broiler chickens. A total of (96) 21-day old Cobb broilers were used for the experiment. The birds were weighed and allotted to 6 pens containing 16 birds each. A finisher diet based on cassava and copra meal and a commercial broiler finisher diet were fed each to 3 randomly selected pens for a period of 21 days. Results showed poorer (p<0.05) final body weight, daily feed intake, daily gain and feed: Gain ratio on the test feed compared to the control commercial feed, but feed cost of meat production (WST$/kg live weight) was reduced (p<0.05) on the test feed. Birds on the commercial feed had higher (p<0.05) carcass and breast meat yields, while the yields of thighs and drumsticks were not affected (p>0.05) by the diet. There were no treatment effects (p>0.05) on the weights of the liver, heart and ceaca, but birds on the test feed recorded higher (p<0.05) weights of the pancreas, gizzard and small intestine. Birds fed the control commercial feed deposited more (p<0.05) fat than those fed the test feed. It was concluded that cassava copra meal-based finisher diets could be used to reduce cost of meat production and carcass fat content and thus meat quality of broiler chickens. Further research into appropriate combinations of these ingredients for optimum growth and feed utilisation by broilers is recommended.
  S.S. Diarra and B.A. Usman
  In a 12 week experiment the effect of graded levels of soaked sesame seed meal (SSM) as a source of methionine on the performance of laying hens was investigated. In a completely randomized design, 200 black Australorp pullets aged 20 weeks were allotted to 5 isonitrogenous diets with 4 replicates of 10 birds per diet. Sesame seed meal (SSM) replaced soyabean meal (SBM) weight for weight at 0.00, 12.50, 37.50 and 50.00% in diet 1 (control), 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The control diet contained synthetic methionine which was removed with the introduction of SSM in the other diets. The results showed a significant (P< 0.05) reduction in the hen-day egg production above 25.00% and egg weight above 12.50% levels of replacement. Shell quality was not affected by dietary treatment. Feed cost (N/egg) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced on the 12.50% replacement compared to the 37.50%. There was no treatment effect (P> 0.05) on the while blood cell count, but packed cell volume was significantly (P< 0.05) lowered on the 50.00% and haemoglobin concentration, serum protein, albumin and globulin above 12.50% levels of replacement. These results suggest that replacing SBM with SSM at 12.50% in the diet of laying hens will meet their methionine requirement without adverse effects on performance and health status.
  B.A. Usman , A.U. Mani , A.D. El - Yuguda and S.S. Diarra
  In order to study the development of Newcastle Disease (ND) in Japanese quail subjected to high ambient temperature with or without supplementation with ascorbic acid (AA), eighty 3 week-old Japanese quails were randomly allotted to four equal groups. Two of the groups were kept at room temperature (26 ±0.5 °C) with one supplemented with AA (RA) and the other receiving no AA (RO). The other two groups were kept at a continuous temperature of 41.8 ±0.6 °C with one of them supplemented with AA (HA) and other receiving no AA (HO). The group RO served as the control. Ascorbic acid was supplemented at the rate of 1000mg/kg feed. Twelve birds in each of four groups were challenged oculonsally with a pigeon isolate of velogenic ND virus and the rest left as in contact. Morbidity rate was 100% in all challenged and in contact birds except in the incontact of the group supplemented with AA which recorded 50%. One hundred percent mortality was recorded in heat stressed groups irrespective of AA supplementation while 0% and 50% mortality was recorded in those kept at room temperature with or without AA supplementation respectively. None of the unchallenged in contact birds died in any of the groups. Lesions of ND in the experimentally infected quails were characterized by pathological lesions. The results of haemagglutination inhibition test performed on blood samples of all birds on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 post inoculations indicated no effect of heat treatment or AA supplementation on the humoral immune response of the Japanese quail. It was concluded that prolonged high ambient temperature has detrimental effects on the survival of Japanese quail with AA supplementation having some ameliorating effects. High ambient temperature may not adversely affect the humoral immune response of Japanese quail to Newcastle disease and AA may not be an important factor in the resistance of quails exposed to prolonged high ambient temperature to ND virus infection.
  S.S. Diarra and B.A. Usman
  In a 63-day experiment the effect of replacing maize with raw or cooked mango kennel meal on the growth and blood parameters of broiler chickens was investigated. One hundred and eighty (180) day-old Anak, 2000 broiler chicks (mixed sex) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments containing 4 replicates of 15 chicks each. The diets consisted of a maize - based (control) diet and 2 other diets containing 20% of either raw (RMK) or boiled mango kernel (BMK) meal as a replacement for maize. Boiling reduced the toxic factor (tannin) content of mango kernel by up to 75.00%. During the starter phase (0-28 days) birds fed the RMK- based diet ate significantly less feed, gained less weight and recorded a poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR) than the control and the BMK - based diets, but there were no significant dietary effects on these parameters during the finisher period (28-63 days). There were no significant dietary effects on the haematological values but serum total protein and globin were markedly reduced on the RMK fed group. From these results it is concluded that 20% of the maize can be replaced with boiled mango kernel meal in the diet of broilers without adverse effects on growth and blood parameters.
  B.A. Usman and S.S. Diarra
  Mortality plays a major role in determining profitability of egg type layers, as it is a function of culled and dead birds. Negative association between mortality and net profit has been reported. Higher mortality and culling were reported to be due to severe outbreaks of infectious/non-infectious diseases, accidental deaths, substandard health and management practices and poor quality of chicks and feed. Newcastle (ND), Infectious bursal disease (IBD), yolk sac infections and coccidiosis were found to cause maximum mortality (over 30%) in egg type layers. Infectious laryngotracheitis (IL) caused mortality within the range of 0.81 - 20% in layers. Cannibalism was also reported to be a major cause of death in egg type layers. A drop of 10-40% in egg production was found with the incidence of infectious coryza, E. coli, mycoplasmosis, coccidiosis, egg prolapse and aflatoxicosis. Salmonellae were abundantly found in bedding material of chicken (42%), drinkers (36%), feed (28%) and water tanks (17%) of the poultry farm. Maintenance of a healthy environment in a poultry shed, protection of birds from extreme climatic conditions, maintenance of standard hygiene measures and antibiotic therapy, were reported as key factors in the reduction of losses due to diseases and mortality in egg type layers.
  S.S. Diarra , B.A. Usman , J.U. Igwebuike and A.G. Yisa
  The ban of meat meal in poultry feed in most countries of the world and the high cost of fish meal have resulted in the increased use of plant products in poultry diets. However, phytate, which is the main storage form of phosphorus in plants, exerts antinutritional effects in poultry due to its ability to form insoluble complexes with essential minerals and proteins. In addition to these effects, the excretion of excess phosphorus into the environment is a serious cause of environmental pollution. Deactivation techniques such as boiling, fermentation, soaking and enzyme treatment have been used to reduce the level of phytate in plant materials. However, these techniques add to the cost and reduce the nutritional quality of the finished feed through the loss of nutrients. The modes of action of phytate in poultry, its distribution in plants, some common deactivation techniques and their limitations and certain intrinsic qualities of plants that can minimize the effects of phytate in the consuming animal are reviewed. The use of plant and animal breeding as an alternative to deactivation by physical and chemical methods and the use of enzymes are also highlighted.
  I.D. Kwari , S.S. Diarra , B. Saleh , P.R. Bovoa , O.A. Ramat and D. Tochukwu
  An experiment was conducted at the University of Maiduguri Poultry Research Farm to investigate the total replacement of maize grain with different cultivars of sorghum in broiler finisher diets. Two hundred and forty broiler chickens aged 28 days weighing 540.96±9.26 g were randomly allotted to 24 pens. Six finisher diets containing 20% crude protein were formulated for the experiment. Diet 1 (control) was based on maize which was replaced in the other diets by one of five cultivars of sorghum grain. Each of the diets was fed to 4 randomly selected pens of 10 birds per pen using a completely randomized design. Feed intake, weight gain and final body weight were all reduced (p<0.05) on the sorghum-based diets compared to the control. These values were further reduced (p<0.05) on the Tumbuna sorghum compared to the other sorghum diets. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) however, did not show any superiority (p>0.05) of the control over the other diets. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters did not show any advantage of maize over the sorghum grains. It was concluded that although total replacement of maize with the sorghum grains has no apparent effects on the health of finishing broiler chickens, it is not beneficial when growth is the major performance response evaluated.
  Kwari, I.D , S.S. Diarra , J.U. Igwebuike , I. Nkama , S. Issa , B.R. Hamaker , J.D. Hancock , M. Jauro , O.A. Seriki and I. Murphy
  The decrease in the production coupled with the numerous industrial uses make maize an expensive energy ingredient for poultry feeding, thus the need for research into cheaper alternatives. A 9-week experiment was conducted to assess the effects of feeding low tannin sorghum grain as a replacement for maize on the growth, haematology and carcass measurements of broiler chickens at the Poultry Unit of University of Maiduguri Livestock Research Farm, Maiduguri, Nigeria. A total of 300 day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments containing 3 replications of 20 chicks each. The diets contained sorghum grains at 0.00, 25.00, 50.00, 75.00, and 100% respectively as a replacement for maize. The starter and finisher diets were formulated to contain 23% and 20% crude protein respectively. The results of growth performance showed no superiority of maize over sorghum grain in terms of weight gain and feed conversion ratio, during both phases of growth (starter and finisher). Feeding sorghum grain had no adverse effect on the haematological parameters analyzed. The yields of carcass and cut-up parts were not adversely affected by the level of sorghum grain in the diet. Similarly, there was no adverse effect of feeding sorghum grain on the weight of vital organs (heart, liver and spleen). It was concluded that low tannin sorghum can completely replace maize in broiler chickens diets without compromising the growth, meat yield or the health of the birds. The substitution is beneficial as it reduces competition between poultry and man for the already scarce maize grain.
  S.S. Diarra and P. Tabuaciri
  Poultry can only regulate their body temperature within a narrow range of environmental temperatures (between 16-26°C). In the tropics, environmental temperatures are usually above this zone during most part of the year. High ambient temperatures adversely affect the performance of poultry with meat-type birds being more susceptible than egg-type birds. The poor performance of poultry under high ambient temperatures is mainly as a result of decreased feed intake which consequently reduces growth and meat quality, egg production and egg quality and efficiency of feed utilization. Several feeding practices have been used to alleviate the adverse effects of high temperatures on poultry performance. Although most studies on nutritional management of heat stress have been carried out in broilers there are also few reports on nutritional management in laying hens under heat stress condition. Feed form (particle size, moisture content), nutrient manipulation (especially energy and protein), electrolyte and vitamin supplementation, feeding time/feed restriction, choice feeding and drinking water management have all proven to be beneficial to heat-stressed poultry. The present paper reviews some common feeding management practices used to alleviate the effect of high ambient temperatures on poultry performance as well as their limitations.
  S.S. Diarra and A. Devi
  Three hundred 18 week-old Shaver Brown pullets (1,477.40±7.41 g) were allotted to 5 treatment groups containing 3 replicates of 20 pullets each. The treatments consisted of five feeding space allowances (FSA): 5.60, 8.40, 11.20, 14.00 and 16.80 cm/bird. Data were collected on feed consumption, weight change, egg production and feed conversion ratio (feed: dozen eggs) for a period of 20 weeks (18 to 38 weeks of age). All data collected were subjected to analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and significant differences reported at 5% probability. Mean feed consumption, body weight change and egg weight were not significantly affected by FSA. Pullets given access to FSA of 11.20, 14.00 and 16.80 cm/bird laid the first egg at a significantly younger age compared to those given 5.60 and 8.40 cm/bird. Hen-day egg production (HDP) and egg mass increased with increasing FSA up to 14.00 cm/bird. Hen-day production did not differ between the groups given 8.40 and 16.8 cm/bird. Groups given 5.60 cm/bird consumed more feed per dozen egg produced. The lowest feed consumption per dozen eggs was recorded on 11.20 and 14.00 cm FSA per bird. These results suggest that keeping the feeding space between 11.00 and 14.00 cm/hen will improve flock uniformity and reduce cost of egg production of Shaver Brown hens in the study area.
  S.S. Diarra and A. Devi
  Cassava root meal which has been used as good alternative energy source in poultry and pig diets is increasingly becoming an important energy source for feeding the world’s human population. There are however, several by-products of cassava harvest ranging from the leaves, peels and pulp which have potential as feed ingredients in poultry rations. Cassava peels and pulps are moderate to high in energy and have been included in diets as replacements for conventional energy sources. Cassava leaves, moderate to good protein contents, have been used as protein supplements. Dietary recommendations of cassava by-products for poultry have varied considerably. The major factors limiting the efficient utilization of these by-products in poultry diets include the high fibre and low energy contents and likely presence of antinutritional factors, mainly hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in the bitter variety of cassava. Several technologies have been used to improve the utilization of cassava by-products by poultry. The following paper reviewed the composition of some cassava by-products (leaves, peels and pulp), their recommendations for inclusion in poultry diets and processing methods to maximize their utilization by poultry. It was concluded that efficient use of cassava by-products will reduce feed cost of poultry production and provide additional source of income to cassava farmers and processors.
  S. Smalling , S.S. Diarra and F. Amosa
  Background and Objective: High temperature and humidity are major challenges to poultry production in tropical countries. Several feeding strategies have been found to alleviate the effect of heat stress (HS) in poultry. This study aimed to ascertain the effects of feed physical form and water addition on the performance of finishing broilers in a hot humid environment. Materials ans Methods: A total of 180, three-week old, Cobb 500 broilers (1,207.8±22.09 g) were used for a 3-week study. Two forms of feed (whole pellet and ground pellet) were fed with 3 water: feed ratios (0; control, 0.15 and 0.3) to 3 replicates of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Results: Results showed lower feed intake and better feed conversion ratio on whole pellet compared to ground pellet (p<0.05). Water addition and feed form had no effects on the relative weights of carcass, breast, thighs, drumsticks, organs (liver, crop, proventriculus, small intestine, caeca, gizzard and pancreas) and digesta content of gut segments (p>0.05). There were no interaction effects of feed form and water addition on growth parameters and the relative weights of carcass, organ and digesta in the gut segments. Conclusion: Feeding pellet is beneficial in term of feed utilization but wet feeding has no effects. Further studies on higher feed: water ratios and environmental temperatures are recommended.
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