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Articles by S.S. Atwal
Total Records ( 3 ) for S.S. Atwal
  Ravindra Kumar , Anuja Gupta , V.K. Maheshwari and S.S. Atwal
  Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major food crops of the world. Due to lack of awareness, the farmers do not distinguish the seed from grain and hence the quality of farmers saved seed remains below standard. This seed carries microflora which play an important role in reducing the seed viability. Among seed microflora, fungal load on the seed is very important. In this study, seed samples of different varieties of paddy were collected from farmers in different villages of Haryana from 2002 to 2012. The seed was subjected to seed health test by blotter technique and observed under stereo-binocular microscope to assess its fungal load. The per cent germination and vigour index were also evaluated by paper towel method. A total of 30 fungi belonging to different groups were recorded from the samples of farmers’ saved seed. Alternaria padwickii (28.52%), Curvularia lunata (22.67%), Alternaria alternata (10.51%), Rhizopus stolonifer (8.96%), Aspergillus flavus (8.26%) and Fusarium moniliforme (7.15%) were recorded as major fungi associated with the seed. However, in breeder seed of different paddy varieties grown at this station, only 22 fungal species belonging to different groups were recorded. Out of which Alternaria padwickii (10.62%), Curvularia lunata (7.35%), Alternaria alternata (6.54%), Aspergillus flavus (6.07%) and Rhizopus stolonifer (5.21%) were recorded as the major fungi associated with this seed. Average per cent germination and vigour of farmers’ saved seed of different paddy varieties was significantly lower than the breeder seed of different varieties of paddy grown at this station.
  Anuja Gupta , S.N. Sinha and S.S. Atwal
  An experiment was conducted during 2006-2009 to study whether modified atmosphere with varying carbon dioxide concentration can protect seed from fungal infestation. Lower CO2 concentration upto 40% was ineffective in the control of seed mycoflora, however high concentrations of carbon dioxide reduced fungal incidence but none of the carbon dioxide concentrations tested, completely controlled fungal infestation in paddy seed or rice grain. CO2 at 60-80% concentrations (v/v) reduced the incidence of storage fungi viz., Curvularia lunata, Cladosporium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer and Alternaria alternata on stored paddy seed. But 80% CO2 was required to control Aspergillus flavus, an aflatoxin producing fungi. Modified atmosphere with oxygen at 5% concentration resulted in higher incidence of storage fungi (52.0%) as compared to 48.0% in basmati rice exposed to modified atmosphere with 2% O2 concentrations and with CO2 concentrations varying from 0-20%.
  A. Kumar , A. Gupta , S.S. Atwal , V.K. Maheshwari and C.B. Singh
  Karnal bunt disease of wheat caused by Tilletia indica is a designated disease and a limiting factor in wheat export because most countries regulate the Karnal Bunt (KB) pathogen as a quarantine pest. KB pathogen is seed, soil and air borne. The seed must be threshed and examined for KB infection. Therefore, the post harvest management of KB in wheat seed production through mechanical processing is very important. Pre-cleaner and screen grader removed 83.1 and 61.4% of total KB infected seed present in the seed lot and reduced KB infection from 1.42 to 0.24% and 4.27 to 1.65% in 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively but it is much higher than the permissible limit of 0.05%. Hence, a total of 18 combinations, comprising of three deck slopes (S1-20, S2-2.50, S3-30), three feedings (F1- 5 kg, F2- 10 kg, F3- 15 kg min-1) and two output settings (O1- 45 cm deck width, O2- 43 cm deck width) of specific gravity separator were studied with an objective of getting maximum Karnal bunt free seed per unit of time. Minimum KB infection in final product (0.04 and 0.28%), maximum final output (12.58 and 12.78 kg min-1) and KB free seed recovery per minute (12.58 and 12.75 kg) with 84.1 and 86.4% recovery efficiency has been obtained by the treatment S1F3O1 (slope of deck 20, feeding 15 kg min-1, output deck width 45 cm) in 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. Mechanical processing reduced KB infection by more than 93%, depending on the intensity of infection and increased seed quality i.e., seed germination improved by 7.71% and physical purity by 2.41%.
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