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Articles by S.R. Hashemi
Total Records ( 5 ) for S.R. Hashemi
  S.R. Hashemi and H. Davoodi
  The aim of this study was to review research currently being carried out on the herbal plants and phytogenics that have been shown to modulate the immune system and special attention is given to the use of herbal plants on poultry herbal feed supplement. The uses of herbal plants as health promoters are gaining increasing attention in both consumer and scientific circles. Although, there are few studies which have revealed the mechanism of action of the immunostimulatory compounds of herbal plants but the exact molecular mechanisms of some herbs are not already known. There are several possible explanations for immunomodulation mechanisms of herbal plants and their derivatives that have been put forward. Our attempt here would be to look more closely at the herbal plants mechanisms involved, including from the immunomodulation point of view, and relationships between structures and activities.
  E. Maroufyan , A. Kasim , S.R. Hashemi , T.C. Loh and M.H. Bejo
  The aim of this study was to find the effect of methionine and threonine supplementations higher than the NRC recommendation on growth performance and white blood cell differentiation of broiler chickens challenged with infectious bursal disease. A total of 450 day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to nine groups. Chickens were fed by three graded levels of DL- methionine [NRC (M1), 2 times NRC (M2) and 3 times NRC (M3)] and three graded levels of L-threonine [NRC (T1), 2 times NRC (T2) and 3 times NRC (T3)] from day 1-42 of age. On day 28, all birds were challenged with a commercial live-IBDV vaccine. Body Weight Gain (BWG) and Feed Intake (FI) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were significantly influenced by the dietary treatments before challenge and either methionine or threonine at the highest levels significantly decreased BWG, FI and FCR in broiler chickens. Birds were fed with M3T3 had the lowest body weight gain after challenge. Supplementation of two times methionine and threonine (M2T2) to the diet decreased peripheral blood heterophils and increased lymphocytes and H/L ratio on day 28. On day 42, complete white blood cell tended to increase with increasing level of methionine supplementation. Threonine did not affect peripheral blood differential leukocyte count of broiler chickens. In conclusion, our data suggest that the methionine and threonine requirement of male broiler chicks is higher for growth performance than was suggested by the last NRC committee and methionine and threonine higher than NRC requirements in tropical condition can ameliorate the negative effects of heat stress.
  S.R. Hashemi , I. Zulkifli , M. Hair Bejo , A. Farida and M.N. Somchit
  In order to collect ethnobotanical information about growth and health promoter plants as feed additive in broiler chickens, five medicinal plants Euphorbia hirta, Solanum torvum, Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Zingiber zerumbet used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of several ailments of microbial and non-microbial origins were investigated for phytochemical screening and acute toxicity study. A total of 30 female broiler chicks were obtained. At 21 days of age, the chicks were allocated at random into six groups. Five chickens were assigned at random to each treatment in five replicates and kept in 30 cages (one chickens per cage) till five weeks of age. Five groups were administered a single oral dose of 2,000 mg kg-1 b.wt. while 5 mL distilled water was given to the control group of birds as placebo. Phytochemical screening study showed that plant contained volatile oils, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids. Alkaloids and steroids were only found in the aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta. Tissues were harvested and processed for photomicrographic examinations. Macro and microscopic observations indicated no alteration in liver and kidneys of the treated birds with 2000 mg kg-1 of selected herbal plants extract. In the hematological study, a highly significant decrease was observed in AST, ALT, ALP level of broiler group receiving the aqueous extract of E. hirta 14 after of administration. Acute toxicity study indicated that water suspensions of selected herbal aqueous extract are not toxic when administered by the oral route to experimental birds at 2000 mg kg-1 b.wt. In conclusion, the results obtained in the present study are in agreement to a certain degree with the traditional uses of the plants estimated as prophylaxis against various diseases and promote of health.
  S.R. Hashemi and H. Davoodi
  The aim of this study summarizes the experimental knowledge on efficacy, possible modes of activity and aspects of application of phytogenic products as feed additives for poultry. Feed additives are a group of feed ingredients that can cause a desired animal response in a non-nutrient role such as pH shift, growth or metabolic modifier. Many substances found in nature have a wide range of growth promoting, immunostimulatory or antimicrobial activity. Common feed additives used in poultry diets include antimicrobials, antioxidants, pH control agents and enzymes. Phytogenic are a relatively young class of feed additives and in recent years this feed additives have gained considerable attention in the feed industry. They are a wide variety of herbs, spices and products derived thereof and are mainly essential oils. Although, numerous reports have demonstrated antioxidative and antimicrobial and immune stimulation efficacy in vitro, respective experimental in vivo evidence is still quite limited. A limited number of experimental comparisons of phytogenic feed additives with antibiotics and acidifiers have suggested similar effects on the gut. Gut microflora has significant effects on host nutrition, health and growth performance by interacting with nutrient utilization and the development of gut system of the host. In addition, some phytogenic compounds seem to promote intestinal mucus production. However, a systematic approach toward the efficacy and safety of phytogenic compounds used as feed additives for poultry is still lacking.
  S.R. Hashemi , I. Zulkifli , Z. Zunita and M.N. Somchit
  The aim of this study was to compare selected sterilization methods to maintain high susceptibility of antibacterial activities of aqueous extracts of herbal plants. Autoclave-sterilized Impregnated disk and Impregnated disk sterilized by Acrodisc syringe filter were embedded on Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) plates seeded with the respective test microorganisms. Among five extracts, Euphorbia hirta exhibited antibacterial activities. Autoclaving caused less damage to the antibacterial activities of the tested extract in comparison with syringe filtration.
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