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Articles by S.O. Okaiyeto
Total Records ( 6 ) for S.O. Okaiyeto
  S. Danbirni , S.O. Okaiyeto , A.C. Kudi and S.B. Pewan
  Thirty two nomadic Bunaji cows in Sabon Gari Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Kaduna State were presented for screening with history and signs of persistence coughing, emaciation, superficial lymphadenopathy, fever, anaemia and drop in milk production. The animals were screened for Bovine Trypanosomosis (BT) and Tuberculosis (BTB) using Standard Trypanosome Detection and concentration Method (STDM) and One-Step Anigen® Rapid Bovine Tuberculosis Antibody Test (IQRT), respectively. The result revealed that 40% (13/32) were positive for Trypanosoma vivax and 12.5% (4/32) positive for antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). Animals positive for trypanosomosis were treated with homidium chloride (Novidium®) at 1 mg kg-1 body weight, while those positive for M. bovis antibodies were culled. Post mortem examinations conducted on culled animals revealed no gross lesions for BTB. This study showed that coughing and emaciation in BT due to immunosuppressive activity of the trypanosomes may obscure or mimic BTB, this may result in the unnoticed spread of BTB to susceptible animals and humans through aerosol droplets and the possible consumption of unpasteurized milk, respectively thereby constituting a public health hazard.
  S. Danbirni , S.O. Okaiyeto , S.B. Pewan and A.C. Kudi
  A herd of 43 nomadic Bunaji cattle in Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State were presented for screening with history and signs of persistence coughing, anorexia, fall in milk yield, back arched and head extension towards wind direction. The cattle were screened for Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) using BoviLAT® Latex Agglutination Test-PA6223 (CFT) and One-Step Anigen® Rapid Bovine Tuberculosis Antibody Test (IQRT), respectively. Of the 43 animals screened, 47% had antibodies to Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony variant (Mmm SC) while 14% had antibodies to both Mmm SC and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). Animals positive for Mmm SC were confined and administered 20% long acting tetracycline (Tridox®L.A) at 20 mg kg-1 body weight while those that were negative were vaccinated with CBPP vaccine obtained from the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom. Animals positive to both Mmm SC and M. bovis antibodies were advised to be cull out. This investigation revealed that under natural condition, concurrent infection of cattle with CBPP and BTB may occur. Serological tests used in this study may be useful for epidemiological studies while bacteriological culture, postmortem examination and tuberculin skin test (for BTB) need to be carried out to confirm CBPP and BTB. The use of antibiotics in a combined strategy with vaccination and restriction of movement in CBPP out breaks; screening and early culling of animals exposed to M. bovis may help in reducing the economic impact of CBPP and BTB in developing countries.
  S. Danbirni , A.K.B. Sackey , A.C. Kudi , S.O. Okaiyeto and S.B. Pewan
  Sixteen lactating Bunaji dairy cows were screened for bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) using one-step Anigen® Rapid Bovine Tuberculosis Antibody Test (IQRT) specific for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) antibodies. About 62% (10/16) of the lactating Bunaji cows screened were positive for antibodies to M. bovis. Six out of the ten positive cows were randomly selected culled and postmortem examination was conducted on them for the presence or absence of bTB gross lesion. Gross lesion was not observed in any of the culled cows examined. Though, the cows were exposed to M. bovis, probably infection is inapparent because bTB is a progressive and chronic disease.
  S.O. Okaiyeto , O.J. Ajanusi , A.K. Sackey and L.B. Tekdek
  An experimental study on joint infection with Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) and Haemonchus contortus (Hc) was conducted in 30 female Yankassa sheep aged between 12 and 25 months, divided into 5 groups of 6 animals (TcHc, HcTc, Hc, Tc and control). Two groups received a single infection with either H. contortus or T. congolense and two other groups were infected with T. congolense followed by H. contortus (TcHc) in one and H. contortus followed by T. congolense (HcTc) in the other. One group was kept as uninfected control. All the trypanosome-infected groups (Tc, TcHc, HcTc) showed different prepatent periods, the Tc group was patent at day 10 post-infection (pi), while TcHc and HcTc were patent at day 5 and 7 pi, respectively. High mean parasiteamia was observed during the acute phase of the infection in the trypanosome infected groups, which declined during the chronic phase giving mean parasitaemic scores of 3.2±0.1 and 0.3±0.1. There was a rapid fall in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of the TcHc group, which reaches a minimum decline at day 25 pi. It was also observed that higher faecal egg count corresponded to decrease in PCV. All the Haemonchus infected groups developed higher eosinophils values, which was indicative of the activities of tissue invading helminthes.
  S. Danbirni , A.K.B. Sackey , J.O. Ayo , E.K. Bawa , A.C. Kudi , S.O. Okaiyeto and S.B. Pewan
  This study was carried out to detect exposure to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in four dairy herds consisting of a total of 200 cows, aged between 21/2-10 years. The cows were of various breeds, namely: white Fulani (Bunaji), crosses of white Fulani and sokoto gudali, white Fulani and Friesian, semi-intensively managed and producing milk for yoghourt production in Kaduna and environs. Anigen® Rapid Bovine Tuberculosis Antibody Test (IQRT) specific for M. bovis antibodies in sera of cows were used in this study. The result showed 17.5% (35/200) positive for antibodies to M. bovis. Fresh milk from cows positive to the IQRT and also packed yoghourts made from milk obtained from those positive and negative cows in the sampled dairy herds were collected and subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen Stain (ZNS) in order to detect bacilli in fresh milk and packed yoghourts. The result obtained 17.1% (6/35) of these cows were shedding the bacilli in fresh milk while no bacillus detected in the packed yoghourts. The result showed that IQRT was sensitive in detecting M. bovis before they start shedding in milk while ZNS technique was found to be potentially useful in detecting M. bovis infected lactating cows that are shedding the bacilli in milk. This study has shown that apparently healthy lactating cows may shed viable M. bovis in milk there by posing a serious public health problem where unpasteurized milk is consumed. This calls for the need to ensure that only non-positive milking cows are milked for human consumption and the IQRT is the best of choice to determine that.
  U.B. Abubakar , J.I. Ameh , I.A. Abdulkadir , I. Salisu , S.O. Okaiyeto and A.C. Kudi
  Nigeria is one of the African countries where bovine tuberculosis is wide spread in both cattle and humans. Although, the current status on the actual prevalence rate of bovine tuberculosis at a national level is unknown but from the limited survey research which have been reported over the last 30 years in the country, the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis due to M. bovis ranges from 2.5% in 1976 to 14% in 2007 which shows that the prevalence of the disease has been on the increase. The isolation and identification of Mycobacterium bovis in fresh and sour milk as sold in local market, sputum and tissue samples from humans especially among Fulani herdsmen, abattoir and slaughter houses has been reported what has therefore been established is that bovine tuberculosis occurs in cattle and humans in Nigeria.
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