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Articles by S.M. Mansor
Total Records ( 7 ) for S.M. Mansor
  H.V. Annegowda , C. Ween Nee , M.N. Mordi , S. Ramanathan and S.M. Mansor
  The influence of acid and alkaline hydrolysis on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Terminalia catappa L. leaves were evaluated in this study. Polyphenolic content was determined using total phenolic, total flavonoid and total tannin assays. Four in vitro antioxidant assays such as DPPH, ABTS, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potency (FRAP) and total antioxidant capacity assays were followed to determine the antioxidant potency of the extracts and the values were expressed as mg vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC)/g extract. The results of this study indicated that acid hydrolysed and alkaline hydrolysed extracts possess fewer amounts of polyphenolic constituents in comparison with non hydrolysed extract. Even the VCEAC values of non hydrolysed extract in antioxidant assays were significantly higher (p<0.05) than acid and alkaline hydrolysed extracts. Moreover, the UV-visible spectral study also showed the absence of some of the absorption peaks of polyphenolic constituents in acid and alkaline hydrolysed extracts and hence, it supported our in vitro results. A strong correlation was observed for polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities of these extracts ensuring the involvement of polyphenolic content for the antioxidant activity. However, the results of this study may not be generalised for all plants as different plants possess different phytoconstituents in varying quantities.
  N. Krishnan , S. Ramanathan , S. Sasidharan , V. Murugaiyah and S.M. Mansor
  The aim of the present study was to characterize the antimicrobial properties of various crude extracts of the Cassia spectabilis leaf against bacteria and yeast. Acetone, n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. spectabilis leaves were evaluated in vitro against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeroginosa) and yeast (Candida albicans). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined using micro dilution assay. Methanol showed the highest yield (14.12%) followed by dichloromethane (8.37%), acetone (6.66%), ethyl acetate (4.76%) and n-hexane (1.80%). Acetone and methanol crude extracts showed a good antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.625 to 2.5 mg mL-1 and MBC or MFC values ranging from 1.25 to 5 mg mL-1. The MIC, MFC and MBC values of these extracts were 10 to 80 times less potent than standard antimicrobial drugs, amoxilin and miconazole nitrate.
  N.A. Hanapi , J. Azizi , S. Ismail and S.M. Mansor
  This study investigated the effects of selected Malaysian medicinal plant extracts towards human recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme activities in vitro. Five Malaysian medicinal plants were tested on the three main CYP450 enzyme activities of CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. The abilities of these extracts to inhibit human cytochrome P450 enzyme activities were analyzed using a luminescent assay. Orthosiphon stamineus showed the most potent inhibitory activity against CYP2C9 with an apparent IC50 value of 77.5±1.1 μg mL-1, while Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Eurycoma longifolia and Mitragyna speciosa extracts showed negligible inhibition. On the metabolism mediated by CYP2D6, Mitragyna speciosa showed the most potent inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 3.6±0.1 μg mL-1, followed by Orthosiphon stamineus, Andrographis paniculata and Curcuma xanthorrhiza with IC50 value of 11.7±1.1, 44.2±4.5 and 215.3±71.6 μg mL-1, respectively. Andrographis paniculata ethanolic extract gave the lowest IC50 value towards CYP3A4 with an apparent IC50 value of 27.6±3.7 μg mL-1, followed by Orthosiphon stamineus (78.4±20.3 μg mL-1), Mitragyna speciosa (142.8±13.8 μg mL-1) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza (285.3±61.7 μg mL-1). Sulfaphenazole, quinidine and ketoconazole were used as positive controls for CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 respectively. The findings suggest that Orthosiphon stamineus, Mitragyna speciosa and Andrographis paniculata may contribute to herb-drug interactions if they are administered concomitantly with drugs metabolized by CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 respectively.
  F. Mustaffa , J. Indurkar , S. Ismail , M.N. Mordi , S. Ramanathan and S.M. Mansor
  This study investigated the antioxidant capacity and safety parameters (toxicity) of Cinnomomum iners standardized leaves methanolic extract (CSLE) to provide information regarding long term usage of this plant. CSLE exhibited high total phenolic (211.94±12.04 mg GAE g-1 plant material) and flavonoid (13.38±0.08 mg CE g-1 plant material) contents. The antioxidant activity of CSLE was evaluated using DPPH, H2O2 and reducing power assay. CSLE showed potent antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 0.5±0.26 mg mL-1 and 1.00±0.31 mg mL-1 in DPPH assay and H2O2 study, respectively. The electron donating capability (reducing power) of CSLE was found to be higher than standard antioxidant (vitamin E). The toxicity screening of CSLE was conducted using brine shrimp assay, acute toxicity screening and histopathologic study. An acute toxicity study was carried out by using OECD guideline 423. The LC50 and LD50 values of CSLE were found to be 2.59±0.3 mg mL-1 and > 5000 mg kg-1, respectively. The organ body weight of the CSLE treated mice shows no considerable difference with control group mice. This shows that CSLE does not affect the weight of the mice. No mortality or significant signs of acute toxicity was observed during the 14 days observation period. On the day 14, all the mice were dissected and organ as heart, liver, kidney, spleen and lung were withdrawn for the calculation of organ body index. The organ body index obtained showed that no significant difference with control. Withdrawn organ was subjected to histopathological study. Histopathological analysis of organs did not show any pathological changes. The results obtained in present study indicate that CSLE is very good antioxidant source with high margin of safety.
  H.V. Annegowda , M.N. Mordi , S. Ramanathan and S.M. Mansor
  The aim of the present study was to investigate the analgesic and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of Terminalia catappa (TCSE) leaves obtained by soxhlet extraction. The analgesic effects of TCSE extract was studied by formalin induced pain, hot plate and tail flick tests where as antioxidant activity was evaluated by ABTS radical scavenging and metal chelating assays. In formalin test, 80 mg kg-1 (p.o.) dose of TCSE extract inhibited both the phases (p<0.05) of animal’s nociception, but TCSE extracts (40 mg kg-1, p.o.) inhibited only late phase. TCSE extract (80 mg kg-1, p.o.) showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the reaction time in hot plate test at the time interval of 60, 90 and 120 min. In contrast, both the doses of TCSE extracts did not show any analgesic effect in tail flick test, but morphine (5 mg kg-1, s.c.) shown significantly (p<0.05) higher analgesic effect at all time intervals. TCSE extracts showed moderate ABTS free radical scavenging activity compared to standard gallic acid and higher activity compared to BHT (88.07, 96.35 and 68.76% of inhibition, respectively) but shown less ability to chelate ferrous ion. It was concluded from our studies that TCSE extracts have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties as well as better radical scavenging ability.
  H.V. Annegowda , T.S. Gooi , S.H.H. Awang , N.A. Alias , M.N. Mordi , S. Ramanathan and S.M. Mansor
  The multiple traditional uses with fewer scientific investigations about C. iners bark made imperative to further exploit this plant for the evaluation of its therapeutic value. Analgesic and antioxidant activities of ethanolic, aqueous and alkaloid extracts prepared from C. iners bark was studied using both in vivo and spectrometric experimental models. Results of hot plate and tail flick studies show that all the screened extracts are devoid of central analgesic activity. However, promising findings regarding the peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity was revealed from the formalin induced pain method with alkaloid extract possessing significant activity followed by ethanolic and aqueous extract. Moreover, the results of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was also confirmed the presence of higher amount polyphenolic content in ethanolic extract with significant antioxidant activity. The observed peripheral analgesic activity by ethanolic and aqueous extract might be due to the presence of higher amount polyphenolic present in them. Results of this study also supported the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of pain. Hence, it was concluded from the study that C. iners bark extract can be utilized as new source of peripheral analgesic in the treatment of pain.
  K.N. Purushotham , H.V. Annegowda , N.K. Sathish , B. Ramesh and S.M. Mansor
  Presence of polyphenolic content in various part of the plant exhibit wide pharmacological activities including antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the phenolic contents (total phenols, flavonoid and tannins) and antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of flower, leaf, pod, bark and root obtained from Cassia auriculata. Ethanolic extracts of various parts of C. auriculata obtained by sonication extraction techniques are studied for their phenolic contents and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine) radical scavenging assay as well as total antioxidant assays using UV visible spectrophotometer. Among the various parts of the plant studied, bark showed significant content of phenolics, flavonoids and tannins followed by the root, leaf, flower and pod. Even bark extract exhibited highest antioxidant capacity in DPPH assay followed by root, leaf, flower and pod with a value of 766.7, 679.3, 644.9, 572.5 and 474.7 mg vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (mg VCEAC)/sample, respectively. In addition, mg VCEAC values obtained from the total antioxidant assay was in the increasing order of bark>root>leaf>flower>pod. Moreover, a strong correlation was also found between phenolic contents and antioxidant values indicating their influence in the found antioxidant activity, hence the bark extract can be employed as an ideal candidate for herbal based pharmaceutical product. Results of the present study also emphasize variation in the chemical composition as well as biological activity ensuring the importance of proper selection of particular part of the plant to evaluate their therapeutic potency.
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