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Articles by S.K. Singh
Total Records ( 7 ) for S.K. Singh
  S.K. Das , S.K. Singh , B.P.S. Yadav and M.A. Khan
  The 2 crossbred low yielding milch cows were maintained in loose housing under the organic farming project and their performances were studied in the system. About 1 ha of land was brought under organic farming. About 50% land was earmarked for crop, i.e., paddy, wheat in different season, 20% land for fishery, 20% land for horticultural crop and 10% land was kept for dairy and fodder production. Overall mean yield of morning milk, evening milk and total milk per cow was found to be 3.966, 2.936 and 6.902 kg, respectively. Average daily intake of dry roughage, green roughage and concentrate per cow was 4.504, 7.134 and 6.371 kg, respectively. Average daily yield of dung was 12.891 kg. Highest total milk yield of cow (10.450 kg) was recorded in the month April. Higher milk yield during the month April was due to availability green fodder. Multiple Regression analysis of data indicated that daily milk yield of cow increases by 339 and 811 g (p<0.01) per kg increase of green roughage intake and concentrate intake.
  Bikash Sarkar , B.C. Mohapatra , S.K. Singh , Dukhia Majhi , N. Sarangi and G.N. Tiwari
  An experiment was conducted to examine the energy use pattern in open and greenhouse fish ponds. The energy consumption was around 584.99 and 1027.22 MJ/50 m2 for open and greenhouse pond, respectively. The energy input-output, specific energy and energy productivity were found to be 0.070, 71.55 MJ kg-1 and 0.014 kg MJ-1 for open pond and 0.079, 63.60 MJ kg-1 and 0.015 kg MJ-1 for greenhouse pond, respectively. The energy ratio was higher in the greenhouse due to lower inputs and the specific energy was recorded low due to the higher yield.
  S.G. Chethan , S.K. Singh , M. Karikalan , N.S. Kharayat , B.K. Behera , K. Narayanan , H. Kumar and A. Anjaneya
  Infertility or sterility due to uterine pathology is one of the major reasons for culling of buffalo in India. Abattoirs serve as a good source of biological samples in order to study different pathological conditions. Major affections of uterus in buffalo include endometritis, metritis, pyometra, hydrometra, mucometra and certain congenital abnormalities. Mostly diagnosis of such cases is based on gross morphological examination observed in abattoir or sometime on clinical and post-mortem examination. Histological based diagnosis of major affections of uterus in buffalo is less and as such very few reports are available especially on hydrometra and mucometra conditions. The present study reports the morphological and histopathological evaluation of cytological and purulent endometritis, hydrometra and mucometra conditions in riverine buffalo.
  Bhupander Kumar , R. Gaur , G. Goel , Meenu Mishra , Dev Prakash , S.K. Singh , R.B. Lal , Sanjay Kumar and C.S. Sharma
  A study was conducted to assess the levels of organic pollutants i.e. organochlorine pesticides, (OCPs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) and herbicides, in sediments from nine major municipal drains in Delhi, India. Sediment samples from Delhi’s municipal drains were extracted with acetone/dichloromethane (1:1v/v) and analyzed using GC and HPLC. The average concentration of ∑OCPs, ∑OPPs and ∑herbicides was 27.26±9.7 ng g-1 (dry wt.), 80.89±22.4 ng g-1 (dry wt.) and 16.20±4.45 ng g-1(dry wt.), respectively. Among OCPs ∑HCH alone accounts 63% followed by ∑DDT (16%), ∑endosulphan (13%) and drins 8%. The ratio of p,p’-DDT/∑DDT (0.23), p,p’-DDT/p,p’-DDE (0.26) and o,p’-DDT/p,p’-DDT (<0.01) indicates the aged mixture or past usage of DDT and no dicofol type DDT. Among OPPs Chlorpyriphos was the dominant pollutant with 89% of total OPPs. Pendimethalin accounts 77% of total herbicides followed by Butachlor (14%) and Alachlor (9%). The level of herbicides, OCPs and OPPs in this study were compared with Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines, Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG) and Probable Effect Level (PEL) and found much lower than fresh water sediment guideline values. However, it is recommended that regular intensive assessment for persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals to be conducted, due to environmental concerns.
  S.K. Singh , S. Mehra , S.K. Shukla , Vinay Kumar , A. Tiwari , M. Mehra , Giriraj Goyal , Jose Mathew and Deepak Sharma
  The MHC class I gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced in guinea fowl using the primers specific to BF2 gene in chicken. The nucleotide sequence of 571 bp partial CDS of BF2 gene includes 32 nucleotides of signal peptide (exon 1), complete α1 domain (270 nucleotides) and 269 nucleotides of α2 domain. For α1 and α domain no sequence variation was observed within guinea fowl sequences, however, high variability was observed within the other poultry species (15.93-28.03%) except chicken (7.95-9.16%). Between the guinea fowl and other poultry species, the α1 domain showed high nucleotide variability (29.26-43.70%). Among poultry species, guinea fowl showed least variability with chicken and maximum with duck. Among the substitutions, majorities were of non-synonymous (76.27%) with a ration of 1:3 between synonymous to non-synonymous substitutions. Guinea fowl showed lower genetic distances (Kimura 2-parameter) with chicken and quail (0.211-0.215), while with duck and goose, it showed higher genetic distances (0.343-0.350). Phylogenetic tree, based these genetic distances revealed two major clusters, comprising of guinea fowl, quail and chicken in one with guinea fowl as separate branch, while duck and goose in other.
  G. Goyal , V. Upmanyu , S.K. Singh , S.K. Shukla , S. Mehra , Vinay Kumar and Deepak Sharma
  Differential expression of IL-6 and IGF-II genes were studied in guinea fowl and broiler chicken using semi-quantitative analysis. A 219 bp fragment of IL-6 and 215 bp fragment of IGF-II were amplified in guinea fowl and broiler chicken using chicken specific primers. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed the adjusted Integral Density of 0.853 and 0.051 for IL-6 band in guinea fowl and broiler chicken respectively, revealing 16.62 fold higher IL-6 mRNA expression in LPS induced PBMCs from guinea fowl as compared to that from broiler. However, adjusted Integral Density of IGF-II band was 0.082 and 1.106 for IGF-II band in guinea fowl and broiler chicken respectively, which revealed 13.43 fold increase in IGF-II mRNA expression in LPS induced PBMCs in broiler chicken as compared to that in guinea fowl. Hence, guinea fowl showed higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and lower expression of IGF-II in comparison to broiler chicken. These findings were as per expectation in view of much higher immuno-competence and lower growth rate in guinea fowl in comparison to chicken.
  A. Jerome , S.K. Singh , S.K. Agarwal , Mohini Saini and Ashwin Raut
  Pregnancy Associated Glycoproteins are trophoblastic proteins belonging to the Aspartic proteinase family secreted by different mammalian species. They play a pivotal role in placentogenesis, foeto-maternal unit remodeling and implantation. The identification of the genes encoding those proteins will be helpful to unravel the intricate embryogenomic functions during pregnancy establishment. Considering importance of these proteins, the present study was undertaken to characterize the pregnancy associated glycoprotein-1 gene of buffalo. An 1181 base pairs buffalo Pregnancy Associated Glycoprotein PAG- 1 gene was PCR amplified from the RNA obtained from the fetal cotyledons. BLAST analysis of the buffalo PAG- 1 sequence retrieved a total of 94 sequences which includes 35 cattle, 5 goat and 4 sheep PAG sequences, exhibiting more than 80% similarity. In silico analysis of buffalo PAG-1 gene revealed an uninterrupted open reading frame of 1140 base pairs encoding 380 amino acids possessing 15 amino acid signal peptide and mature peptide of 365 amino acids which is proteolytically inactive due to key mutations. The potential sites for glycosylation were also deduced. The phylogenetic study of the buffalo PAG-1 gene revealed buffalo PAG-1 is more related to cattle, goat and sheep PAG-1 sequences. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of buffalo PAG-1 gene revealed many conserved regions and its proteolytic inactivity.
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