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Articles by S.E. Watkins
Total Records ( 6 ) for S.E. Watkins
  S. E. Madrigal , S.E. Watkins , N. B. Anthony , C. E. Wall , C. A. Fritts and P. W. Waldroup
  Two studies were conducted in environmental chambers to evaluate different dietary modifications on the incidence or severity of ascites, leg disorders, and sudden death syndrome in males of two commercial broiler strains and their reciprocal crosses. A high energy-high nutrient density diet (HE) series served as the positive control. Two other diet series consisted of a high fiber (HF) diet fed 7 to 21 days of age, followed by the HE series, and a low energy-low nutrient density diet during the early growth phase, as suggested by a major breeder. All diets were pelleted. In one study, a low ventilation model was used while in the second study a low temperature model was used. However, due to limitations of the system we were unable to attain the desired low temperatures. In both studies, however, atmospheric levels of CO2 and ammonia were greatly elevated. There were no differences in incidence or severity of ascites, leg disorders, or sudden death syndrome among broilers fed the different dietary regimes to 49 days of age. Broilers fed diets designed to reduce early growth rate were significantly lighter than those fed the HE diets at 21 days of age. At 49 days of age body weights were not always significantly different but quantitative weight differences were equal or greater than those observed at 21 days of age. It is possible that under environmental conditions more favorable to the development of ascites that dietary modification may prove beneficial. In these studies, however, live performance was reduced by the dietary modifications with no beneficial effects on reduction of ascites.
  E.A. Saleh , S.E. Watkins , A.L. Waldroup and P.W. Waldroup
  Two trials of identical design were conducted in floor pens to characterize the response of male broilers grown to heavy weights for further processing to dietary nutrient density levels. Nutrient density is defined as the metabolizable energy content of the diet with all essential nutrients maintained in proportion. Ten treatments were utilized with varying nutrient densities obtained by adding poultry oil from 0 to 9% in increments of 1%. Crude protein, amino acids, and other essential nutrients were maintained in proportion to dietary energy levels. Body weights, feed consumed and processing quality were obtained at different intervals up to 63 days of age. Body weight peaked with the diet containing 6% added fat (3267 ME Kcal/ kg, mean of starter, grower, and finisher ME values). Feed intake tended to decrease with increasing nutrient density, but not at a rate commensurate with the change in energy levels. Feed conversion (g gain per g feed) improved as dietary nutrient density increased. Dressing percentage tended to decrease as dietary nutrient density level increased. Abdominal fat and breast meat, both on an absolute weight or percentage of carcass weight basis, remained rather constant when protein was maintained in proportion to energy.
  E.A. Saleh , S.E. Watkins , A.L. Waldroup and P.W. Waldroup
  Three trials with identical experimental design were conducted to examine the effects of dietary nutrient density and energy feeding programs on male broiler chickens grown to heavy weights for further processing. Diets were formulated to provide a minimum of 107.5% of NRC (1994) amino acid requirements, maintained in proportion to dietary energy levels. Diets with different nutrient density were obtained by adding 0, 3, and 6% poultry oil (PO) while maintaining essential nutrients in a constant balance with energy. Diets within each age period (0 to 21 days, 21 to 42 days, and 42 to 63 days) had similar ratios of metabolizable energy to crude protein. Six feeding programs were obtained by either feeding these three levels of PO continuously to 63 d or by increasing the amount of PO in the diet at 21 d. Live performance was examined at 14, 21, 42, and 63 d and carcass composition was examined at 63 d. Dietary energy levels or feeding programs had no significant effect on body weight except at 42 d, which improved as PO was added to the diet. Feed intake was not significantly affected by feeding various levels of poultry oil or by utilizing different feeding programs. However, feed conversion at all ages showed a significant improvement as the level of supplemental PO increased. Calorie conversion was not affected at 14, 21, and 42 d. At 63 d, calorie conversion was significantly reduced when birds received diets with increased supplemental PO. Neither supplemental PO or feeding program affected the dressing percentage or yield of economically important carcass components at 63 d when examined on an absolute basis or as percentage of carcass weight. Abdominal fat content was not significantly influenced by level of supplemental poultry oil.
  E.A. Saleh , S.E. Watkins , A.L. Waldroup and P.W. Waldroup
  Six feeding programs for broilers based on level and time of feeding poultry oil (PO) were compared as well as early feed restriction. All diets were formulated to contain a minimum of 107.5% of NRC (1994) amino acid recommendations, maintained in proportion to dietary energy level. Three different energy levels within each age period were obtained by adding 0, 3, and 6% PO and formulating for optimum nutrient density. Diets within each age period (starter, 0 to 21 days; grower, 21 to 42 days; and finisher, 42 to 84 days) had similar calorie:protein ratios. During the restriction period of 7 to 14 d, the birds were given an amount of their respective diets calculated to provide daily maintenance energy requirements. Before and after the restriction period, the birds were offered feed for ad libitum consumption. Body weight, feed consumption, and processing quality were obtained at 63, 70, 77, and 84 d of age. In general, body weight and feed conversion were improved as PO was added to the diet; however, the response was not always significant. Mortality, dressing percentage, abdominal fat, breast, leg, and wing yield did not differ significantly as various levels of PO were fed. In the few instances where there was a significant difference, it did not follow any specific trend among the dietary treatments. There was a significant decrease in the ability to utilize energy by birds grown to 63, 70, 77, or 84 d as the level of PO increased. Feed restriction reduced body weight at 63, 70, and 77 d of age. However, feed conversion was significantly improved and mortality significantly reduced at all ages as compared to birds fed ad libitum. Feed restriction had little impact on abdominal fat. No interaction was observed between PO levels and feed restriction.
  P.W. Waldroup , S.E. Watkins and H.M. Hellwig
  Hens of a commercial strain of SCWL hens were subjected to a molt and allowed to resume production before being placed on test diets consisting of a nutritionally complete basal diet supplemented with three sources of sodium (sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium sulfate) at three levels of added sodium (0.10, 0.20, 0.30%) with three levels of nonphytate phosphorus (0.25, 0.45, and 0.65%) in a complete factorial arrangement. When non-chloride sources of sodium were used the diet was supplemented with 0.12% Cl from calcium chloride. A reference group of hens within each level of nonphytate phosphorus was fed a diet with no supplemental sodium or chloride. Each of the thirty resulting dietary treatments was assigned to eight groups of hens, with a replicate group consisting of five 30.5 x 45.7 cm cages with one hen per cage fed from a common feed container. After allowing the hens to acclimate to the test diets for 28 d data were collected for a second 28 d period on rate of egg production, feed intake, egg weight, shell breaking force, and shell deformation time. Results of the study indicate that no more than 266 mg/d of nonphytate P was adequate for egg production. Increasing the dietary P level greater than 0.45% nonphytate P resulted in a significant reduction in egg shell strength. A dietary sodium intake of 128 mg/d appeared adequate to support optimum performance. Use of sodium bicarbonate or sodium sulfate in place of sodium chloride appeared to have no benefits in regard to egg shell strength in this study.
  J.M. Cornelison , F. Yan , S.E. Watkins , Lloyd Rigby , John B. Segal and P.W. Waldroup
  A study was conducted to evaluate the use of hops (Humulus iupulus) in broiler diets as a potential replacement for antibiotics. Broiler diets were prepared based on nutrient specifications of top broiler companies and supplemented with either 50 g/ton penicillin or hops at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 lbs/ton of feed and compared to an unsupplemented control group. Each treatment was assigned to eight replicate groups of 45 male chicks of a commercial broiler strain. The diets were fed in pelleted form with starter diets fed as crumbles. Addition of 50 g/ton of penicillin resulted in significant improvements in body weight, feed conversion, and feed efficiency at all ages, as compared to those fed the negative control. The addition of hops at 0.5 lbs per ton also resulted in significant improvements in feed conversion and feed efficiency at all ages when compared to the negative control, and also significantly improved body weight at 14 d as compared to those fed the negative control diet. At 42 d, the body weight of chicks fed 0.5 lbs of hops per ton was greater (P = 0.09) than that of chicks fed the negative control. Higher levels of hops feeding resulted in some improvements as compared to those fed the negative control; including 14 d body weight for those fed 1.0 lb per ton, and improved 1 to 42 d feed conversion and feed efficiency for those fed 1.5 lbs per ton. Results of this study suggests that inclusion of hops into diets at the rate of 0.5 lbs per ton for broiler chickens may result in improved growth rate and feed utilization in the absence of growth promoting antibiotics.
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