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Articles by S.A. Mohammed
Total Records ( 5 ) for S.A. Mohammed
  M.A. Razzaque , S.A. Mohammed , T. Al- Mutawa and M. Bedair
  Problem statement: Imported Holstein Friesian dairy cattle are exposed to hot arid climate in feedlot management in Kuwait. Desert climate is extreme reaching high 45-50°C in summer and low -4°C in winter at day and night respectively. High calf mortality, poor reproduction and milk yields were main constraints to viable dairying. The objectives of this study were to assess the magnitude of calf mortality, its causes; implement strategic intervention measures for improving calf survival rates and evaluate dairy herd performance. Approach: Two scenarios were used: (1) studying dairy herd performance without applying intervention measures and (2) introducing improved management with interventions. Performance of the herds of situations 1 and 2 were compared. Three classes of dairy herds, pre-weaned calves, heifers and first lactation cows born in Kuwait were used. Results: Implementing intervention measures resulted in significant (p = 0.001) reduction of crude calf mortality rates from a mean of 43.6% to a low 4.67%. Growth rates of calves and heifers increased significantly, resulting in breeding of locally raised heifers at 15 mo age instead of usual practice of breeding at 18-22 mo. Feed cost was significantly reduced by 14-25% by early breeding of heifers. Herd culling rate was reduced from 62-33% and conception rates increased by 41%. The milk yield was increased by 1.25-1.50 fold through replacing the imported cows by locally born heifers. Adult cattle mortality rates reduced from high 9 to a low 1%. Case study showed that locally born and reared dairy herd formed a mean of 65.8% of total dairy cattle in cooperating farms. Conclusion: A systematic applied research studies in the commercial dairy farms had resulted in a visible improvement in the performance of all categories of locally born dairy herds and they were better adapted to the local hostile climate.
  M.A. Razzaque , T. Al-Mutawa and S.A. Mohammed
  Problem statement: In many hot arid countries, pregnant Holstein Friesian heifers are imported for herd replacement. The calves obtained from exotic cows are exposed to adverse climate in feedlot system resulting in very high morbidity and mortality rates. Diarrhea, dehydration and deaths are causing a major loss to the producers. This study examines the Risk Rates (RR) for morbidity and mortality in pre-weaned calves. Approach: Thirteen commercial dairy farms of small, medium and large sizes were surveyed using 1,280 newborn calves. A survey was conducted for calves from their birth to weaning at 90 day. Parameters of the study were birth weights, colostrum feeding, growth rate, incidences of diseases, clinical symptoms, post-mortem findings and results of laboratory investigations of samples obtained from sick and dead calves. Calf housing and feeding management of 13 farms were investigated. Results: RR for morbidity and mortality ranged from 0.3-1.00 and being highest during the first week. Most common disease was diarrhea representing 90.6% of the total calves affected. Common pathogens causing diarrhea were E. coli, Salmonella sp. Klebsiella, Pasturella and rotavirus. Relationship between calf management and morbidity RR for diarrhea was significant (r2 = 627, p = 0.01) and the growth rate was positively correlated (r2 = 0.761, p = 0.1). Diarrhea caused a significant negative impact on gross margins of the calf enterprises. Conclusion: Colostrum feeding and housing management were the key factors for causing a high RR for morbidity and mortality. Gross margin loss was significantly influenced by morbidity and mortality RR of calves.
  K.M. Elamin , I.A. Yousif , M.K.A. Ahmed , S.A. Mohammed and A.A. Tameem Eldar
  This experiment aimed at the estimation of the genetic parameters for morphometric traits of the Sudanese Local rabbits. Traits studied were: Body Weight (BWT), Ear Length (EL), Fore Limb (FL), Hind Limb (HL), Body Length (BL), height at wither (HTW), Nose to Shoulder (NS), Thigh Girth (TG), Tail Length (TL), abdominal circumference (ABC) and Heart Girth (HG). Data on 74 full pedigreed rabbits at 3 and 5 month of age were used to estimate the heritabilities, genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlation coefficients for these morphometric traits. Heritabilities and various correlation coefficients at 3 month were inestimable for EL. Heritabilties were estimated from sire component of variances. Heritabilities for other traits at this age were moderate to high (0.211-0.570) except for HG (0.130). The genetic correlations among traits studied were generally positive and high. On the other hand, heritability estimates at 5 month of age for all the traits studied were moderate to high (0.223-0.521). The genetic correlation coefficients at 5 month of age of heart girth with all traits studied except ear length (non estimable) and body length (moderate) were high. Whereas, the estimations of the genetic correlation coefficients for body weight with ear length, height at wither, nose to shoulder and tail length was low and negative. It is concluded that linear trait can be used, as alternative guide for body weight, in selection programs aiming at local rabbit improvement.
  S.A. Mohammed , M.A. Razzaque , R.C. Malik and N.M. Al-Khozam
  The body measurements and carcass composition of 35 Naeemi x Border Leicester Merino (NaeemixBLM) crossbred and 9 Naeemi straightbred lambs were investigated. The Naeemi lambs were, on average, 2 kg heavier and had the Body Conditioning Scores (BCS) that were 0.78 points lower and body lengths that were 10.2 cm shorter than the crossbred lambs. There were no significant differences between the genetic groups for (GR) or (BT) but crossbred lambs had significantly more kidney fat. They also had 5.5% higher dressing percentages and 14% higher carcass yields than the Naeemi lambs. Carcass moisture and protein were 6.3 and 1.6% higher and fat was 7.8% lower in the whole carcasses of the Naeemi lambs than in those of the crossbred lambs. It is concluded that the Naeemi x BLM lambs produce heavier carcasses but also accumulate more carcass fat than straight Naeemi lambs.
  M.A. Razzaque , S.A. Mohammed , T. Al-Mutawa and M. Bedair
  Kuwait’s dairy producers import pregnant Holstein Friesian Heifers and they thrive for 2.3 lactations with poor milk yield. Offspring of imported dams are subjected to high mortality, poor growth and reproduction. This study investigated growth, reproduction, milk yield and composition of locally born heifers fed two types of diets. Total 92 weaned 90 d old heifers born in Kuwait from imported dams were assigned to two different diets. Control (C): 25 heifers were fed commercial diet and Treatment (T): 67 heifers were fed balanced improved diets containing 17.5% and 15.1% CP, respectively. T diet was also balanced with vitamins and minerals, where, as C diets were not. Both herds were individually monitored for their heights and live weights; followed by reproductive and lactation performance. Herd T gained significantly (p<0.05) better live weight (T: 0.88 Kg vs. C: 0.71 Kg/h/d) than that of C and reaching significantly (p<0.01) better heights (T: 59% vs. C: 15%) of total standard height of 132 cm. Farm to farm differences in first service (mean±SD) conception rate and pregnancy rate did not differ between C and T herds (p = 0.05). Milk yield differences for C and T herds were 16.86±0.70 and 18.30±1.40 L/cow/day, respectively as well as Milk composition were not significant (p= 0.05). Milk Urea Nitrogen (MUN) concentration was significantly higher (p<0.001) in T herd than that of C reflecting a better protein nutritional status in T than that of C herd.
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