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Articles by S. Khampa
Total Records ( 7 ) for S. Khampa
  S. Khampa and M. Wanapat
  Four rumen fistulated dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments (Factor A = source of energy; CM = corn meal, CC = cassava chip), (Factor B = level of supplementation; 1 and 2% of BW). Four dietary treatments were used: CM1, CM2, CC1 and CC2, respectively. Results revealed that supplementation of cassava chip at 2 %BW, was lower ruminal pH than that of CM1, CM2 and CC1, respectively. In addition, cellulolytic bacteria populations was decreased while protozoa increase with affected by energy source and level supplementation. The result from this experiment suggested that supplementation of energy sources at 2 %BW, especially from cassava chip was reduced ruminal pH lowest but increasing populations of protozoa in rumen of dairy steers.
  M. Wanapat and S. Khampa
  Four, rumen fistulated crossbred dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2 x 2 Factorial arrangement in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to investigate the effect of feeding pattern and supplementation of mineralized solid palm fat (MSPF) on feed intake, digestibility of nutrients, ruminal fermentation and ruminal microbial protein synthesis. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = feeding with roughage and followed by concentrate after 4 h (FRC); T2 = feeding with roughage and followed by concentrate after 4 h with mineralized solid palm fat (FRC+MSPF); T3 = total mixed ration (TMR); T4 = total mixed ration with mineralized solid palm fat (TMR+MSPF), respectivity. The animals were offered urea-treated rice straw as a roughage source. Results revealed that feed-intake, digestibility of nutrients and volatile fatty acids in the rumen were similar among all treatments. As for ruminal pH and urinary purine derivatives they were significantly different among treatments and were higher in animals with roughage feeding and followed by concentrate after 4 h than with TMR diets; however, supplementation of MSPF were not significantly different among treatments. In addition, supplementation of MSPF resulted in reducing protozoal population while population of ruminal bacteria and fungal zoospores were enhanced. In conclusion, the combined use of feeding with roughage and followed by concentrate after 4 h with MSPF could improve rumen pH, microbial protein synthesis but reduced protozoal population in dairy steers.
  A. Ngamsaeng , M. Wanapat and S. Khampa
  Seventeen local feed resources were collected and analyzed for chemical composition and were incubated in in vitro fermentation using gas technique. Based on the condensed tannins (CT) values, these feed resources could be divided into three groups: high (11.4-16.8%), medium (2.1-4.6%) and low (0.7-1.7%). Mangosteen peel had the highest and Pak Kayaeng had the lowest in terms of CT value. All samples were added with rumen fluid mixed with artificial saliva and incubated in in vitro gas fermentation for 48 h during which gas production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were measured. There were significant differences (P< 0.001) in gas production during 48 h incubation. Gas production was lower in the group having the highest level of CT, from 32.2 to 181.9 ml/gDM. There were significant differences (P< 0.05) in total VFAs (from 48 to 88 mmol/L1), individual VFA production and acetate to propionate ratio (from 1.6 to 4.6), however the values were respectively variable. Propionate production tended to be higher in the group with higher CT. The correlation coefficients (r) were relatively low between gas production after 48 h incubation with total VFAs (0.39), acetate (0.16) and butyrate (0.05) production. Furthermore, negative correlations were obtained between gas and propionate production (-0.20).
  A. Ngamsaeng , M. Wanapat and S. Khampa
  Four, rumen fistulated cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The experiment was to study effects of crude saponins and condensed tannins in mangosteen peel on rumen microorganisms and fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in cattle. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = Control (without Mangosteen peel supplementation, MSP); T2 = 50 g DM of MSP/hd/d; T3 = 100 g DM of MSP/hd/d; T4 = 150 g DM of MSP/hd/d with urea-treated rice straw (UTS) fed ad libitum. Roughage dry matter intakes in terms of kg/d and %BW were slightly higher in 100 gDM/hd/d supplemented cattle. Apparent digestibilities (%) of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF were similar among treatments. The values of ruminal temperature, pH, NH 3-N and BUN were not significantly affected by MSP supplementation. However, MSP supplementation increased bacterial population, and was highest at 150 gDM /hd /d supplementation. The protozoal population was significantly decreased while fungal zoospore populations were not changed, and were highest at the 100 gDM/hd/d supplementation group. However, lower values of TVFAs and C2/C3, and higher proportions of C3 were found at 100 gDM/hd/d of MSP supplemented than in the control group. In addition, microbial nitrogen supply, efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis and P /E ratio tended to be higher in MSP supplemented groups and were highest at 100 gDM /hd /d MSP supplementation. These results suggest that MSP supplementation at 100-150 gDM/hd/d could be used as a dietary source to manipulate rumen ecology thus improving rumen fermentation and potential productivity in cattle.
  S. Khampa and M. Wanapat
  Four, lactation dairy cows were randomly assigned according to a 2 x 2 Factorial arrangement in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to study supplementation of urea level (U) at 2 and 4 % and malate (M) at 10 and 20 g/hd/d in concentrate. The treatments were as follows U2M10, U2M20, U4M10 and U4M20, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at a ratio to milk yield at 1:2.5 and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by urea level and malate. In addition, the viable bacteria were similar for amylolytic and proteolytic bacteria. Cellulolytic bacteria were significantly affected by level of malate especially Selenomonas ruminantium and Megasphaera elsdenii while Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was significantly affected by level of urea supplementation. Yield of milk was greatest in cows fed cassava-based diets with M20U2, but were lowest when receiving M10U4 in diets. In addition, production of 3.5%FCM exhibited similar results for all treatments. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 75% DM with urea at 4% in concentrate and malate at 20 g/hd/d with UTS as a roughage could improved rumen ecology and microbial protein synthesis efficiency in lactating dairy cows.
  M. Wanapat , C. Promkot and S. Khampa
  Three crossbred Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid-late lactation were randomly allocated to three ratio of cassava hay (CH) and soybean meal (SBM) (CH:SBM) in concentrate supplement treatments(0:100, 60:40, 100:0) according to a 3 x 3 Latin square design. Concentrate mixture containing 16 %CP was given to animals at two equal parts (2 % of body weight per day) while urea-treated rice straw (5 %urea) (UTRS) was given on ad libitum. The experiment revealed that increasing CH:SBM ratio in concentrate had no effect on dry matter intake and digestibility while reduced concentrations of ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were reduced. Milk yield across treatments were similar (8.0-8.5 kg/hd/d) while fat contents of milk tended to linearly increase as ratio of CH to SBM in concentrate increased. Moreover, increasing levels of CH to SBM ratio in concentrate linearly increased income over feed thus resulted in more milk income return. Conclusions can be made that CH should be recommended used as a protein source replacement a soybean meal in concentrate for a sustainable dairy production in the tropics.
  M. Wanapat , A. Petlum , N. Wongnen , S. Matarat , S. Khampa and P. Rowlinson
  Crop-Animal Systems Research Network of Thailand (CASREN-Thailand) has been surveyed for general information on livestock-crops farming systems to find out the main problems encountered by smallholder farmers and to implement appropriate technologies to farmers in order to improve farm productivity. Using a farmer participatory approach, recommended technologies such as on-farm feed production and feeding strategies have been offered to farmers. Improving on-farm grass yield by using high production grass varieties such as Purple Guinea grass could increase both quantity and quality of roughage for animals. Cassava/legumes intercropping could provide protein sources for both animal and human (food-feed system), however, the role of legumes in improving soil fertility should be also considered. In addition, supplementation with cassava hay produced on-farm could improve animal productivity particularly milk quality such as milk fat. Moreover, production and utilization of home-made concentrate using local feed resources was key to decrease the cost of production. The overall activities under CASREN-Thailand are fulfilled by improving crop-livestock production systems in rainfed areas.
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