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Articles by S. G. Adler
Total Records ( 2 ) for S. G. Adler
  M. V Pahl , N. D Vaziri , J Yuan and S. G. Adler

Background and objectives: Hematopoietic growth factor–inducible neurokinin 1 (HGFIN), also known as Gpnmb and osteoactivin, is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed in numerous cells, including osteoclasts, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It serves as an osteoblast differentiation factor, participates in bone mineralization, and functions as a negative regulator of inflammation in macrophages. Although measurable at low levels in monocytes, monocyte-to-macrophage transformation causes substantial increase in HGFIN expression. HGFIN is involved in systemic inflammation, bone demineralization, and soft tissue vascular calcification.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We explored HGFIN expression in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in 21 stable hemodialysis patients and 22 control subjects.

Results: Dialysis patients exhibited marked upregulation of colony-stimulating factor and IL-6 and significant downregulation of IL-10 in intact monocytes and transformed macrophages. HGFIN expression in intact monocytes was negligible in control subjects but conspicuously elevated (8.6-fold) in dialysis patients. As expected, in vitro monocyte-to-macrophage transformation resulted in marked upregulation of HGFIN in cells obtained from both groups but much more so in dialysis patients (17.5-fold higher). Upregulation of HGFIN and inflammatory cytokines in the uremic monocyte-derived macrophages occurred when grown in the presence of either normal or uremic serum, suggesting the enduring effect of the in vivo uremic milieu on monocyte/macrophage phenotype and function.

Conclusions: Uremic macrophages exhibit increased HGFIN gene and protein expression and heightened expression of proinflammatory and a suppressed expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Further studies are needed to determine the role of heightened monocyte/macrophage HGFIN expression in the pathogenesis of ESRD-induced inflammation and vascular and soft tissue calcification.

  T Dai , M Patel Chamberlin , R Natarajan , I Todorov , J Ma , J LaPage , L Phillips , C. C Nast , D Becerra , P Chuang , L Tong , J de Belleroche , D. J Wells , Y Wang and S. G. Adler

β-Cell apoptosis occurs in diabetes mellitus (DM). Heat shock protein (HSP) 27 (human homolog of rodent HSP25) mitigates stress-induced apoptosis but has not been studied in β-cells. We tested whether HSP27 overexpression attenuates streptozotocin (SZ)-induced DM in vivo and cytokine-induced islet apoptosis in vitro. DM was ascertained by ip glucose tolerance testing, and fasting serum insulin/glucose was measured. Pancreas was stained for insulin, HSP27, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling, and insulin content was measured. HSP25/27 was measured by immunoblotting, isoelectric focusing, and RT-PCR. Islet HSP25/27 oligomerization and inhibitory B protein kinase (nuclear factor B essential modulator) binding were assessed by coimmunoprecipitation. HSP27 transgene (TG) in pancreas localized predominantly in β-cells. Baseline pancreatic insulin levels in wild-type (WT) and HSP27TG mice were similar, but lower in WT than HSP27TG after SZ (P < 0.01). Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing confirmed protection from SZ-DM in HSP27TG. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling and inducible nitric oxide synthase staining were increased in WT vs. HSP27TG islets (P < 0.05) after SZ. Caspase-3 activity was lower in islets from HSP27TG vs. WT mice after cytokine stress in vitro (P < 0.05). There was more HSP25 plus 27 protein from HSP27TG islets than HSP25 from WT (P < 0.01). HSP25 protein but not mRNA was increased in HSP27TG mice. Isoelectric focusing showed similar relative HSP phosphorylation in HSP27TG and WT (P > 0.05). HSP27 bound native HSP25 in TG islets; both bound to inhibitory B protein kinase (nuclear factor B essential modulator). These data show islet protection by HSP27 by mitigation of apoptosis, possibly through nuclear factor B regulation.

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