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Articles by S Bian
Total Records ( 2 ) for S Bian
  A Mehanna , B Mishra , N Kurschat , C Schulze , S Bian , G Loers , A Irintchev and M. Schachner

2,8 Polysialic acid (PSA) is a carbohydrate attached to the glycoprotein backbone of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and implicated in nervous system development and repair. Here, we investigated whether PSA can improve functional recovery after peripheral nerve lesion in adult mice. We applied a functional PSA mimicking peptide or a control peptide in a polyethylene cuff used to surgically reconnect the severed stumps of the femoral nerve before it bifurcates into the motor and sensory branches. Using video-based motion analysis to monitor motor recovery over a 3 month postoperative period, we observed a better functional outcome in the PSA mimetic-treated than in control mice receiving a control peptide or phosphate buffered saline. Retrograde tracing of regenerated motoneurons and morphometric analyses showed that motoneuron survival, motoneuron soma size and axonal diameters were not affected by treatment with the PSA mimetic. However, remyelination of regenerated axons distal to the injury site was considerably improved by the PSA mimetic indicating that effects on Schwann cells in the denervated nerve may underlie the functional effects seen in motor recovery. In line with this notion was the observation that the PSA mimetic enhanced the elongation of Schwann cell processes and Schwann cell proliferation in vitro, when compared with the control peptide. Moreover, Schwann cell proliferation in vivo was enhanced in both motor and sensory branches of the femoral nerve by application of the PSA mimetic. These effects were likely mediated by NCAM through its interaction with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), since they were not observed when the PSA mimetic was applied to NCAM-deficient Schwann cells, and since application of two different FGFR inhibitors reduced process elongation from Schwann cells in vitro. Our results indicate the potential of PSA mimetics as therapeutic agents promoting motor recovery and myelination after peripheral nerve injury.

  S Bian , B. W Koo , S Kelleher , J Santos Sacchi and D. S. Navaratnam

Prestin is the motor protein within the lateral membrane of outer hair cells (OHCs), and it is required for mammalian cochlear amplification. Expression of prestin precedes the onset of hearing in mice, and it has been suggested that prestin undergoes a functional maturation within the membrane coincident with the onset of hearing. We have developed a tetracycline-inducible prestin-expressing cell line that we have used to model prestin's functional maturation. We used prestin's voltage-dependent nonlinear charge movement (or nonlinear capacitance) as a test of function and correlated it to biochemical measures of prestin expressed on the cell surface. An initial stage of slow growth in charge density is accompanied by a rapid increase in our estimate of charge carried by an individual motor. A rapid growth in charge density follows and strongly correlates with an increasing ratio between an apparently larger and smaller monomer, suggesting that the latter exerts a dominant-negative effect on function. Finally, there is a gradual depolarizing shift in the voltage of peak capacitance, similar to that observed in developing OHCs. This inducible system offers many opportunities for detailed studies of prestin.

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