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Articles by Ryuzo Yanagimachi
Total Records ( 2 ) for Ryuzo Yanagimachi
  Gary N. Cherr , Masaaki Morisawa , Carol A. Vines , Kaoru Yoshida , Edmund H. Smith , Takahiro Matsubara , Murali C. Pillai , Frederick J. Griffin and Ryuzo Yanagimachi
  Sperm of the Pacific herring are immotile at spawning. Two egg-derived molecules are capable of initiating sperm motility. One is herring sperm activating protein(s) (HSAPs) and the other is sperm motility initiation factor (SMIF). These two motility initiators differ in their location and association with the chorion, and in thier isoelectric points and molecular weights. In this study we have investigated the roles of these two inducers with respect to motility and fertilization. Using computer analysis of sperm motility, we found that HSAPs, as well as the C-terminal HSAPs peptide, elicit a linear motility pattern, while SMIF induced a highly circular and asymmetric pattern. HSAPs induced a two-fold increase in intracellular calcium, whereas SMIF induced a four-fold increase of motility initiation. SMIF-exposed sperm, preloaded with BAPTA-AM, showed a more linear motility and this motility trajectory decreased with their fertilizing capability. The difference in intracellular calcium levels between HSAPs and SMIF is consistent with the observed linear and circular motility. In the absence of SMIF, HSAPs do not support fertilization. Fertilization is rescued in these experiments if SMIF is reintroduced. We propose that diffusible HSAPs are not essential for fertilization, but enhance sperm-egg collisions via linear motility. SMIF, which is bound to the micropylar region of the chorion, is required for fertilization and induces circular motility that is a prerequisite for sperm to enter the micropylar canal and fertilize the egg.
  Tadashi Andoh , Takahiro Matsubara , Tatsuo Harumi and Ryuzo Yanagimachi
  The fish egg is surrounded by a thick envelope called the chorion. The fertilizing spermatozoon enters the egg through a canal-like structure in the chorion, the micropyle. Examination of micropyle at fertilization is difficult if eggs are large and have no distinct landmarks surrounding the micropyle, or if they are positively buoyant in water. Eggs of many commercially important fishes (e.g., flounder, sea bream and eel) are buoyant in water or only slightly adhere to solid objects (e.g., sands, rock and water plants), which makes observation of spermatozoa at fertilization difficult. Here, we report that such eggs can be firmly attached to plastic and glass dishes that have been previously coated with poly-L-lysine. These adhering eggs can be fertilized and develop normally on the dishes. Observations of micropyles of three fish species, before and after sperm entry are presented.
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