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Articles by Rusman
Total Records ( 8 ) for Rusman
  R. Adiwinarti , Kustantinah , I. Gede S. Budisatria , Rusman and E. Indarto
  Objective: This study was set up to increase the productivity of Kacang goats using fish meal and soybean meal (containing relatively high ruminally undegradable protein) in the ration. Materials and Methods: Twelve kacang goats, 1-1.5-year-old, 17.84+1.57 kg were used in this study. A completely randomized design was used with 3 different rations: NG (control) = Natural grass, FM = Total Mixed Ration (TMR) containing fish meal and SBM = Total mixed ration containing soybean meal. The rations contained 15% of crude protein and 1% of the mineral mix, except for NG. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance using the SPSS statistics software version 19. Results: The growth of FM goats (ADG = 59.03 g) and SBM goats (ADG = 80.06 g) were higher than that of NG goats (ADG = 27.22 g). However, the slaughter weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage of goats fed TMR containing soybean meal (SBM) were the highest among all of the treatments with having the lowest of non-carcass (%). The meat, bone and fat of SBM carcass are also the highest among others. The chevon fat content of goats fed Natural Grass (NG) was the highest, while other physical and chemical properties of chevon were relatively the same. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the use of fish meal and soybean meal in the ration improved the performance of local kacang goats. In fact, soybean meal in the ration can improve the productivity and carcass products of kacang goats better than fish meal.
  Elly Tugiyanti , Tri Yuwanta , Zuprizal and Rusman
  Tenderness is determined by the growth and size of muscle fibers, which can be arranged through the feed. The current study was designed to investigate protein and metabolic energy level on performance including meat quality and muscle fiber size of male muscovy ducks. Five protein levels and metabolic energy of feed treatments (13% and 2300 kcal/kg, 15% and 2500 kcal/kg, 17% and 2700 kcal/kg, 19% and 2900 kcal/kg, 21% and 3100 kcal/kg) and 100 male dod of muscovy ducks were administered in this research. Protein and metabolic energy level significantly affected (p<0.01) carcass weight, feed conversion ratio, abdominal fat percentage, physical meat quality and muscle fiber diameter. Feed with 21% protein and 3100 kcal/kg metabolic energy resulted in good performance (1342.60±2243.62 carcass weight, 4.00±0.64 feed conversion and 68.86±5.59% carcass percentage), physical meat quality and large muscle fiber diameter of 50.59 μm, but comparatively high abdominal fat level of 5.60±0.71.
  Theresia Nur Indah Koni , Zuprizal , Rusman and Chusnul Hanim
  Background and Objective: Amorphophallus campanulatus (AC) can be used for food and as animal feed but its utilization is limited because of the high content of oxalate and low crude protein it contains. Fermentation by oxalolytic bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), which produce the oxalate decarboxylase enzyme, has been used to improve the nutritive value of AC. The present study was conducted to improve the nutritive quality of AC through fermentation using Bacillus subtilis. Materials and Methods: AC was incubated for three different lengths of time 7, 14 and 21 days with 3 replicates of each treatment. The parameters observed included the dry matter, crude protein, fat and fiber contents, as well as Ca, P and oxalate contents. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using a completely randomized design. Results: Results showed that the length of the incubation period significantly affected oxalate content (p<0.05). Fermentation with Bacillus subtilis decreased the oxalate content of Amorphophallus by 53.2, 50.4 and 41.2% at 7, 14 and 21 days of incubation time, respectively, when compared with raw Amorphophallus (315.8 mg/100 g) and increased crude fat content (p<0.05). Additionally, the lowest crude fat was found in AC with 14 days of incubation time. However, there were no significant effects on dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, Ca and P (p>0.05). Conclusion: Fermentation using Bacillus subtilis with an incubation length of 7 days was the best treatment for improving the nutrient value of AC.
  Theresia Nur Indah Koni , Rusman , Chusnul Hanim and Zuprizal
  Background and Objective: Bacillus subtilis is a bacterium that can produce the oxalate decarboxylase (ODC) enzyme. This enzyme decomposes oxalate. ODC enzyme activity is influenced by temperature and pH. This study was conducted to determine the optimum pH and temperature for ODC enzyme activity in B. subtilis FNCC 0059. Materials and Methods: B. subtilis was cultivated in oxalate medium at different incubation temperatures for 24 h. The tested temperatures were 25, 29, 33, 37, 41 and 45°C. In separate experiments, cultures were grown in oxalate medium at varying pH from 4-8.5. The cell growth assay and enzyme activity were performed and all the experiments were done with 3 replicates. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results: The optimum temperature of 37°C could produce maximum ODC enzyme activity (0.041 U mL–1) enzyme activity increased to the point of the optimum pH and then decreased 5.6% when the pH was increased 0.5 from the optimum. Maximum ODC enzyme activity (0.0413 U mL–1) was achieved at pH 5.5. Conclusion: Temperature and the pH of the medium affected ODC enzyme activity. Optimum medium condition of B. subtilis was reached at 37°C and pH 5.5.
  Kustantinah , R. Adiwinarti , I.G.S. Budisatria , Rusman and E. Indarto
  Objective: The aim of this study was to improve the productivity of kacang goats raised by farmers by changing their feed. The dietary changes included using balanced ration, containing protein from animals (fish meal, FM/IR1) and plants (agro-industrial by product; soybean meal, SBM/IR2). Feed was provided in the form of total mixed rations (TMR). Materials and Methods: Twelve years-old kacang goats that weighed 17.84±1.57 kg each were divided into three groups of treatments using a completely randomized design. Results: The average daily gain (ADG) of the control groups (41.57 g) was lower than that of improved ration 1 (IR1) group (72.75 kg) and improved ration 2 (IR2) group (91.71 kg) because the DMI/BW0.75, CP, EE and NFE intake of the control group was lower compared to the other groups. The retained N in control goats was the lowest while the retained N in IR2 goats was highest; IR2 was similar to IR1 goats. The N retention (%) and retained N conversion ratios were similar. Metabolizable energy (ME) across treatments was similar but the ME conversion ratio of IR1 (0.07±0.01 Mj g–1) and IR2 (0.07±0.01 Mj g–1) was higher than that of the control (0.11±0.02 Mj g–1); IR1 was similar to IR2. Conclusion: Fish meal and soybean meal supplemented in feed rations can improve the nutrient intake, digestibility, N retention and ME in kacang goats, as well as increase of their productivity (ADG).
  Theresia Nur Indah Koni , Rusman , Chusnul Hanim and Zuprizal
  Background and Objective: The nutrient and anti-nutrient compositions of a foodstuff affects its utilization as food or feed. The nutrient contents of food ingredients are affected by the environmental conditions in which the plant was grown and oxalate in a foodstuff limits its utilization and exerts a negative effect on consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient value, minerals and anti-nutrient values in Amorphophallus campanulatus (A. campanulatus). Materials and Methods: The A. campanulatus tubers were collected from East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia and then cleaned, peeled, chopped, sun-dried for 2 days (at 30-32°C), milled into powder and then analyzed for the proximate and anti-nutrient contents. Results: The nutrient content of A. campanulatus flour included crude protein (1.126±0.101%), crude fat (1.173±0%) and crude fiber (3.447±0.142%). The detected minerals included P (1443.33±34.185 mg kg–1), Ca (8535.76±543.75 mg kg–1) and Mg (1512.39±89.28 mg kg–1). Anti-nutrient analysis indicated the presence of oxalates (318.51±3.2 mg kg–1), tannins (0.46±0.04%), cyanide (35878±0.402 ppm) and phytates (0.165±0.015%). Conclusion: These results revealed that A. campanulatus was high in mineral content but low in anti-nutrient content, so it can be used for food or feed.
  Kustantinah , I.G.S. Budisatria , Rusman and R. Adiwinarti
  Background and Objective: There have been many efforts to improve the low productivity of Kacang goats. Feeding a total mixed ration (TMR) containing sources of energy and protein could improve the performance of the goat. Soybean meal is one of the protein sources that are palatable but highly degradable in the rumen, therefore, it was treated with formaldehyde. The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy utilization, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and acetate-propionate acid (A/P) ratio of Kacang goats fed TMR diets containing different treatments of soybean meal. Methodology: Fourteen yearling Kacang bucks, weighing 17.6±1.2 kg, were arranged in a completely randomized design consisting of 3 different treatments that included an SBM control (n = 5): Untreated SBM, SBM50 (n = 5): 50% untreated SBM+50% formaldehyde-protected SBM and SBM100 (n = 4): 100% formaldehyde-protected SBM. The TMR consisted of 30% Pennisetum purpureum, 30% gliricidia leaves, 19.2% cassava waste product, 13.8% wheat bran, 7% SBM and 1% mineral mix that were mixed and resulted in 14-15% crude protein and 56-60% TDN. The goats were weighed weekly over 70 days and the average daily gain (ADG) was calculated using linear regression. Data were analyzed by an analysis of variance using the SPSS statistics software version 19. Results: The energy intake and digestible energy (DE) of the SBM control group (13.0 MJ and 7.7 MJ, respectively) were higher than those of the SBM50 group (10.2 MJ and 5.8 MJ, respectively) but they were relatively similar to the SBM100 group (11.3 MJ and 6.7 MJ, respectively). The energy conversion ratio (energy intake, DE and metabolizable energy [ME]) also had the same pattern. Digestible energy (% energy intake), faecal production, urine production, methane energy loss (MJ) and ME were similar between the treatments. Intake, digested and metabolizable energy (MJ kg–1 BW0.75) were also the same between the treatments. Total VFA and the A/P ratio before feeding were also similar between the treatments. In fact, the A/P ratio of the SBM control at 3 h and 6 h was higher than that of SBM50 but it was relatively similar to SBM100. Conclusion: Energy utilization of untreated SBM was better than that of 50% formaldehyde-protected SBM but it was similar to that of SBM100. The control group had an A/P ratio that was higher than the SBM50 group. In fact, total VFA was similar between the treatments.
  Rio Olympias Sujarwanta , Jamhari , Edi Suryanto , Rusman , Setiyono , Endy Triyannanto , Yuny Erwanto and Ragil Yuliatmo
  Objective: This study aimed to investigate angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity derived from Indonesian native buffalo meat and its purified protein using SEP-PAK Plus C18. Methodology: Buffalo meat was hydrolyzed with pepsin, trypsin and a combination of pepsin and trypsin. These hydrolysates were assessed for dissolved protein, the molecular weight of proteins and ACE inhibitory activity. The hydrolysate with the highest ACE inhibitory activity was subsequently purified using SEP-PAK Plus C18. The molecular weight of the proteins was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the dissolved protein content and ACE inhibitory activity were evaluated in a complete randomized design. Results: Buffalo meat contained protein (22.66±0.2%) and dissolved protein (3.67±0.59 mg mL–1). Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly elevated the level of dissolved protein and decreased the molecular weight of the proteins. The dissolved protein content following hydrolysis by pepsin, trypsin and a combination of pepsin and trypsin was 10.91±0.4, 8.09±0.8 and 10.90±0.4 mg mL–1, respectively. The molecular weight of proteins in the buffalo meat homogenate ranged from 40-70 kDa, whereas, the hydrolysates were generally less than 40 kDa. The ACE inhibitory activity of the purified hydrolysate (IC50 = 75.8±20 μg mL–1) was approximately twice that of the hydrolysate (IC50 = 133±18 μg mL–1). Purification using SEP-PAK Plus C18 increased ACE inhibitory activity. Conclusion: Buffalo meat hydrolyzed by pepsin had the highest ACE inhibitory activity compared with other hydrolysates. Purification using SEP-PAK Plus C18 almost doubled the ACE inhibitory activity.
 
 
 
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