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Articles by Roy M. Daniel
Total Records ( 2 ) for Roy M. Daniel
  Charles K. Lee , S. Craig Cary , Alison E. Murray and Roy M. Daniel
  The equilibrium model, which describes the influence of temperature on enzyme activity, has been established as a valid and useful tool for characterizing enzyme eurythermalism and thermophily. By introducing Keq, a temperature-dependent equilibrium constant for the interconversion between Eact, the active form of enzyme, and Einact, a reversibly inactive form of enzyme, the equilibrium model currently provides the most complete description of the enzyme-temperature relationship; its derived parameters are intrinsic and apparently universal and, being derived under reaction conditions, potentially have physiological significance. One of these parameters, Teq, correlates with host growth temperature better than enzyme stability does. The vent-dwelling annelid Alvinella pompejana has been reported as an extremely eurythermal organism, and the symbiotic complex microbial community associated with its dorsal surface is likely to experience similar environmental thermal conditions. The A. pompejana episymbiont community, predominantly composed of epsilonproteobacteria, has been analyzed metagenomically, enabling direct retrieval of genes coding for enzymes suitable for equilibrium model applications. Two such genes, coding for isopropylmalate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase, have been isolated from the A. pompejana episymbionts, heterologously expressed, and shown by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR to be actively expressed. The equilibrium model parameters of characterized expression products suggested that enzyme eurythermalism constitutes part of the thermal adaptation strategy employed by the episymbionts. Moreover, the enzymes’ thermal characteristics correspond to their predicted physiological roles and the abundance and expression of the corresponding genes. This paper demonstrates the use of the equilibrium model as part of a top-down metagenomic approach to studying temperature adaptation of uncultured organisms.
  Neil F. Pasco , Ravi Goonerate , Roy M. Daniel , Andrea Czollner and Amy J. Scott
  While direct toxicity assessment (DTA) is now widely recognised as a useful tool for environmental risk assessment, many existing tests fail to meet end-user needs. This article describes the significant progress made to the MICREDOX® DTA assay, developed at Lincoln Ventures Ltd, brought about by miniaturising this assay to a multi-well plate format combined with limiting current microelectrode transduction. The benefits have been reduced: preparation time, reduced assay time, lower material costs and a higher level of replication achieved. To validate the precision of the miniaturised format, the concentrations required to cause a 50% decrease in signal (EC50) by an archetypal group of toxicants, the chlorophenols, were determined using two terrestrial bacterial strains, Escherichia coli K12 and Klebsiella oxytoca 13183. The assay time was then reduced by stepwise adjustment of the incubation time, from 60 down to 5 min, and the EC50s reported by E. coli to each of the toxicants after 45, 30, 15 and 5 min incubations were determined. The results obtained match closely with those reported by the Activated Sludge Respiration Inhibition Test and confirm the miniaturised multi-well plate MICREDOX® DTA assay reliably reports representative EC50 values for these toxicants. The previously described trends of increasing toxicity with increasing chlorine substitution and the observation that meta-substituted chlorophenols are more toxic than their ortho-substituted counterparts are also confirmed. The ability to monitor toxicity using terrestrial organisms, in volumes amenable to multi-well microtitre plates and incubations requiring only a few minutes, facilitates the rapid generation of highly reproducible, easy to operate and inexpensive DTA measurements.
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