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Articles by Raafat M. Shaapan
Total Records ( 7 ) for Raafat M. Shaapan
  Hasan A. Elfadaly , Mohey A. Hassanain , Raafat M. Shaapan , Nawal A. Hassanain and Ashraaf M. Barakat
  Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic zoonotic protozoan, distinguish superior brain parasite load in immune-suppressed patients. Corticosteroids are popular anti-inflammatory with immune-suppressive long course, it possible opportunist higher T. gondii brain parasite load and reverts encephalitis in latent infected personals. The present study concerns this concept and preferred for recognize different levels of T. gondii brain parasite load and immunoglobulin titers in both corticosteroids treated and untreated latent infected mice groups. A total number of 70 Swiss-Webster mice (12-18 g) were divided into four groups, the first and second ones are 30 each (infected-untreated and infected-treated group), the third and fourth 5 each (uninfected-untreated and uninfected-treated control). Administration of glucocorticoid (hydrocortisone sodium succinate) at a dose of 50 mg kg–1 (I.M) injection 3 times a week with oral administration of dexamethasone sodium phosphate in dose of 2.5 mg kg–1 day–1 per mouse in drinking water for sequence 2 months. The 103 bradyzoites from mice brain of cystogenic ME-49 strain was used for inducing latent infected mice groups at 30 days before corticosteroids therapy. Serum and brain tissue samples were collected for serological assay and parasite load estimation from sacrificed mice. The results showed significance elevation of average percent of brain parasite load and IgM/IgG titers. All values exceeds higher and parallel to the progression of corticosteroids term in infected treated group than the infected-untreated one. In conclusion, long-term corticosteroids therapy possible opportunist higher T. gondii brain parasite load and induce encephalitis in latent infected murine model, imitate this serious condition in T. gondii infected patients who received corticosteroids therapy.
  Soad E. Hassan , Nagwa I. Toaleb , Eman E. El Shanawany , Raafat M. Shaapan , Sanaa K.A. Abou-El-Dobal and Ehab Kotb Elmahllawy
  In the present study, crude extract of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were prepared from chicken local isolate and adopted for diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis by ELISA. The extract proved success in detection of Toxoplasma antibodies in 275 (78.12%) out of 352 examined free rang chicken serum samples. The important facet of the present study is adoption of crude chicken tachyzoites antigen in diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis, where it proved 100% sensitivity in the detection of Toxoplasma antibodies in all examined cases (61 samples) of human toxoplasmosis. Meanwhile, RH strain antigen, which used to be utilized in diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis, detected only 80% of chicken toxoplasmosis samples. By SDS-PAGE, chicken tachyzoites antigen resolved to 8 bands of molecular weights ranged from 30-116 kDa. Also, RH strain antigen revealed 10 bands with different molecular weights ranged from 23-166 kDa. The immunoreactive bands were detected by immunoblotting assay. One band of 116 kDa was detected in chicken antigen and 28 kDa in RH antigen by infected human sera. While, two bands with molecular weights 116 and 83 kDa and 116 and 30 kDa were detected in chicken tachyzoites and RH antigens, respectively using infected chicken sera. A band of 116 kDa was detected in chicken antigen using both sera, which is mainly responsible for diagnosis of chicken and human toxoplasmosis. In conclusion, chicken tachyzoites antigen based ELISA can be successfully utilized in diagnosis of chicken and human toxoplasmosis.
  Hassan A. Elfadaly , Mohey A. Hassanain , Raafat M. Shaapan , Nawal A. Hassanain and Ashraaf M. Barakat
  Background: The wastages nourished small ruminants and poultry are still free fed on street wastages and possibly exposed to T. gondii oocysts through feces of outdoor shedder cats and they are regarded as high prevalent sources for human toxoplasmosis via their meat containing viable T. gondii tissue cysts. Materials and Methods: A total No. of 859 samples of both blood and their matching tissue were collected from wastages nourished 455 sheep, 237 goats, 124 chickens and 43 ducks respectively from Giza governorate, Egypt. All animals were assayed serologically using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) as a screen test and the results were confirmed by ELISA. Tissue samples which were identical to seropositive sera were digested and microscopically examined and exposed to DNA confirmation. The microscopic definite bradyzoites containing sera were bio-assayed through intra-peritoneal passage in mice as viability test to determine both LD50 and LD100 for each species isolate. Histopathological examination was done on symptomatic morbid and dead mice. Results: Corresponding to small ruminants and poultry, results of seropositive percentages were 47.5 and 29.3%, total microscopic 30.1 and 32.7%, DNA detection 74.8 and 71.4% and the total percentages of mice viability test 39.4 and 31.3%. In Addition, the total percentages of LD50 were 30.3 and 31.3%, while the LD100 were 9.1 and 0% in small ruminants and poultry respectively. The histopathological examination of inoculated mice signified cyst forming T. gondii in acute and chronic lesions within vital organs. Conclusion: The wastages nourished small ruminants and poultry is of zoonotic impact and significance and must be directed for incriminate this animal feeding pattern and for avoiding consumption under cooked meat of animals or birds.
  Amany I. Ammar , Ismail M. Moharm , Raafat M. Shaapan and Amany A. Rady
  Background and Objective: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is capable of infecting a broad range of intermediate hosts. Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) is a species of herons that is common in Egypt. This work aimed to study the prevalence of T. gondii in cattle egret which is an efficient tool of investigating environmental contamination with T. gondii. Materials and Methods: Serum, heart and brain tissues of 51 cattle egrets were collected from Shebin El-Kom, Menoufia, Egypt and tested using Modified Agglutination Test (MAT) and mice bioassay. Results: There was a detection rate of 13.7% (7/51) in these birds using MAT. By intraperitoneal injection of mice with heart and brain tissues digest of MAT positive birds, the parasite was isolated from two T. gondii sero-positive birds (28.6%). The mice bioassay was confirmed by MAT, Hematoxylin and Eosin (HAND E) staining of the brain of the infected mice, also by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Conclusion: This is the first report of T. gondii infection in cattle egret from Egypt and more studies are needed on Egyptian wildlife to understand the sylvatic life cycle of the parasite.
  Raafat M. Shaapan , Omnia M. Kandil and Somia A. Nassar
  Comparative diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep were carried out with PCR and some serological assays using 200 blood and serum samples collected from sheep of different ages and sexes slaughtered in the main abattoir in Cairo and Giza, Egypt. PCR showed the higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis (48.5%) followed by the Modified Agglutination Test (MAT) (45.5%) and the Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) (41.0%), while the lowest prevalence was detected with the Indirect Hem-Agglutination Test (IHAT) (38.5%). When the data of the serological tests were compared with that of the PCR, as a reference test for toxoplasmosis, MAT had the highest sensitivity (95.9%) followed by LAT (90.7%) and the lowest sensitivity by IHAT (80.4%). On the other hand IHAT had the highest specificity (91.3%) followed by MAT (88.3%) and the lowest specificity was by LAT (84.5%). The present study adopt PCR and serological survey of T. gondii antibodies in sheep by using more sensitive and specific antigens prepared from isolated T. gondii local strain and the obtained results suggests that MAT alone or with LAT can be used as a highly sensitive screening test followed by PCR as a specific confirmatory test for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in sheep. Consequently, the high prevalence of sheep toxoplasmosis detected by this study scopes the public health significance of sheep’s meat as source of human infection.
  Soad E. Hassan , Nagwa I. Toaleb , Raafat M. Shaapan , Eman Hussien Abdel-Rahman and Ehab Kotb Elmahallawy
  To increase diagnostic potency of antigen, its immunogenic component must be isolated. Immuno-affinity column chromatography was adopted to purify immunogenic fraction of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites of chicken local isolate. The isolated fraction was characterized by SDS-PAGE, where it exhibited 2 bands of molecular weights 116 and 83 kDa compared with 8 bands of molecular weights ranged from 116-30 kDa in crude antigen. The isolated fraction proved high diagnostic activity compared with crude antigen by ELISA using two fold serial dilutions of infected human and chicken sera. The fraction detected antibodies in 366 out of 406 (90.1%) examined free range chicken serum samples. Also, it proved success in the detection of Toxoplasma antibodies in 30 serum samples of patient infected with T. gondii. The fraction proved 100% sensitivity and 84.4% specificity. Its Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy were 85.7, 100 and 91.9%, respectively. In conclusion, the present study introduced novel T. gondii chicken tachyzoites partially purified fraction proved high diagnostic activity of chicken and human toxoplasmosis.
  Nahed H. Ghoneim , Mohey A. Hassanain , Dalia A. Hamza , Raafat M. Shaapan and Sara H. Draz
  Background and Objective: Cryptosporidium species are important zoonotic protozoan parasites that infect the gastrointestinal tract of most vertebrate animals and man. Cryptosporidiosis infection is responsible for numerous outbreaks of diarrheal disease worldwide. This study was planned for prevalence and molecular detection of Cryptosporidium spp., in calves and hospitalized children from different Egyptian governorates (Cairo, Giza and Al-Bahira). Materials and Methods: A total of 253 fecal samples from cattle and buffalo calves <2 months, 2-6 months and <6 months of age and 115 stool samples from children <2 years, 2-6 years and 6-12 years old were screened by modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) staining technique for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts followed by molecular characterization using complemented DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (cPCR). Results: An overall Cryptosporidium spp., infection rates of 30.4 and 33.9% were detected among calves and children, respectively. The highest prevalence (32.7 and 44.4%) was demonstrated in younger calves (<2 months) and children (<2 years), respectively. On the other hand, a lower prevalence (20.0 and 27.0%) was detected in older calves (>6 months) and children (6-12 years), respectively. The prevalence in relation to fecal consistency was higher in diarrheic (39.8 and 41.1%) than in non-diarrheic samples (20.8 and 23.4%) from calves and children, respectively. The PCR analysis of 7 and 6 MZN stain positive calves and children fecal samples, respectively, revealed the expected positive bands at 835 bp for all 6 tested children fecal samples and for only 3 calve fecal samples, while the other 4 were negative PCR for Cryptosporidium spp. Conclusion: The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. had a relationship with age and the high infection rate in calves and children can act as a great source of cryptosporidiosis. The obtained data from this study indicates an important public health problem and a potential risk of zoonotic transmission from animal to human beings in Egypt.
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