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Articles by R.K. Singh
Total Records ( 5 ) for R.K. Singh
  V.K. Sahu , A.K.R. Khan , R.K. Singh and P.P. Singh
  Anti-HIV drug discovery has been increasingly focusing on HIV-1-RT (reverse transcriptase) as a potential therapeutic target. Tetrahydroimidazobenzodiazepinone (TIBO) belongs to non-nucleoside group of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). A computational chemistry study has been performed on a series of tetrahydroimidazo-benzodiazepinones as HIV-1-NNRT inhibitors. Problem statement: In order to search out new drug of desired activity from the lead compounds, there was need to know the interaction of drugs with their receptor i.e., type of force(s) that have predominant role. Approach: Log P and SASA have been used for measurement of hydrophobic interaction, energy of protonation for measurement of most favorable hydrogen bond acceptor site, bond length and bond strain for measurement of strength of hydrogen bond formed between drug and receptor, atomic charges, ionization potential, electronegativity, En and Em and their difference δEnm for measurement of polar interaction. The 3D modeling and geometry optimization of the compounds and receptor amino acids have been done by semiempirical method with MOPAC2002 associated with CAChe software. Results: The study has shown that hydrophobic interaction is predominant and made major contribution, while hydrogen bonding and polar interactions help in proper orientation of the compound (or its functional groups) to make maximam interaction. Conclusion: In this study theoretical technique has been discussed by which new hypothetical HIV-1-NNRT inhibitors can be developed prior to their synthesis only by introducing effective hydrophobic substituents at specific sites.
  R.K. Singh , T.R. Singh and U. Kaushal
  Increasing the accuracy of agricultural forecasting is an important application of earth observation. The study on review to aware about the ability to reliably forecast crop production, yield and quality is valuable for economic planning and commodities forecasting as well ensuring global food security. Study, regarding the overview of the current crop yield forecasting methods, which includes ways to use crop yield forecasting method to improve agriculture and rural statistics across the globe. Remote sensing, yield gap analysis and methods to yield forecasting have been discussed in this article.
  G. Venkatesan , V. Balamurugan , P.N. Gandhale , R.K. Singh and V. Bhanuprakash
  Zoonoses are human diseases caused by animal pathogens or animal diseases that are transmissible to humans. Zoonotic pathogens identified are mostly viral origin and are emerging and reemerging. Zoonotic viral infections are grouped based on the type of infection they produce in natural host. Some are associated with encephalitis/hemorrhages and others may cause only local lesions like rashes and arthalgia. Transmission of these viruses usually involves arthropod vectors, which sometime act either as mechanical and/or biological vectors. Some zoonotic agents may be transmitted directly through animal bite or close contact with infected animals or fomites. The zoonotic microbes continue to evolve and adapt with tremendous acceleration and expansion of global trade, human movement and population explosion for efficient adaptation in new host and ecosystem results in catastrophic effects. They continue to cause health hazards in most parts of world and are economically important and public health concern. Control of zoonotic diseases and protection of public health are challenging tasks as the world population is increasing proportionately. The prevention of these infections depends on improved diagnosis and highly effective therapeutics/prophylactics. The collective effort of professionals from medical and veterinary and others is necessary to combat these zoonotic infections. In this review most important zoonotic infections along with their specific etiology, transmission (role of wild-life) manifestations and epidemiology and control/preventive measures are described, so as to create awareness to the scientific/public health community.
  M.R. Siddiqui , A. Tariq , A. Ahmad , M. Chaudhary , S.M. Shrivastava and R.K. Singh
  Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the determination of milrinone in pharmaceutical formulations. The first method is based on the charge transfer complexation reaction of milrinone with 2, 3-Dichloro-5, 6-Dicyanobenzoquinone, DDQ while the second method is based on charge transfer reaction of milrinone with p-Chloranilic Acid (pCA). Under the optimized experimental conditions Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 2-40 μg mL-1 for method A and 5-100, 2-40 μg mL-1 for method B. The recovery ranged from 100.06 -100.11 for method A and from 99.34 -99.97 for method B. The coefficient of correlation was found to be 0.9998 for A and 0.9999 for B and the detection limit for method A and method B was found to be 0.765 and 3.35, respectively. Both the methods have been applied to determination of milrinone in the pharmaceutical formulation. Results of the analysis are validated statistically.
  K. Dhama , M. Kesavan , K. Karthik , Amarpal , R. Tiwari , Lakshmi T. Sunkara and R.K. Singh
  Neuroimmunomodulation involves interactions among nervous, endocrine and immune systems. An integrated function is performed by nervous and immune systems that is responsible for preservation of integrity and homeostasis of the organism. Though Central Nervous System (CNS) has a limited repertoire for its own protection, it has the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) and the capacity to engage peripheral immune system to eliminate infections and xenobiotics. Neural cells involved in the process of providing neural immunity include: Glial cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Besides working as sentinels to get rid of pathogens in the process of neurodevelopment, both central as well as peripheral immune cells actively participate helping in cognitive brain functions. Neurogenesis process may also be regulated by adaptive immune cells peripherally. Recently there is a discovery of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway wherein vagal nerve has shown anti-inflammatory role in endotoxemia and shock. Hormones viz., nor-epinephrine, epinephrine and glucocorticoids prepare immune system to combat infections and enhance distribution and trafficking of immune cells by several ways. This review focuses on neurobiology, neuro-immune cross talk, neuroimmunoregulation, stress and neuroimmunomodulation which will be beneficial for researchers, professionals and academicians. Topics like neurotoxic and neuroprotective roles of immune reactions (which are innate in nature) in the process of aging are highly debated among researchers. In this review, topics like neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, role of vitamins, minerals, herbs and drugs and volatile oils in the process of neuroimmunomodulation and particularly countering various diseases, disorders, infections, stress and aging have been discussed vividly to enhance and update the knowledge of the scientific community regarding this particular topic ‘Neuroimmunomodulation’.
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